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Election Law cartoons image illustration picture
Election Law

Description:
Voting cartoon; electronic voting; Bush v. Gore; contested election; election cartoons; election lawsuit cartoon; voting case; hanging chad; disputed election count; judges vote.

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Election Law cartoons image illustration picture
Election Law

Description:
Voting cartoon; electronic voting; Bush v. Gore; contested election; election cartoons; election lawsuit cartoon; voting case; hanging chad; disputed election count; judges vote.

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Bowers v. Hardwick cartoons image illustration picture
Bowers v. Hardwick

Description:
Fundamental right to engage in sodomy, homosexual conduct.

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Detain Aliens cartoons image illustration picture
Detain Aliens

Description:
Demore v. Kim; aliens may be detained pending removal deportation.

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Bowers v. Hardwick cartoons image illustration picture
Bowers v. Hardwick

Description:
Fundamental right to engage in sodomy, homosexual conduct.

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Detain Aliens cartoons image illustration picture
Detain Aliens

Description:
Demore v. Kim; aliens may be detained pending removal deportation.

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Brown v. Board of Education cartoons image illustration picture
Brown v. Board of Education

Description:
Separate but equal doctrine, public education, violates the fourteenth amendment, tangibly equal resources and facilities, segregation.

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Bush v. Gore cartoons image illustration picture
Bush v. Gore

Description:
Constitutional standards apply to recounts, clear standards, determine voter intent, recount of votes.

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Brown v. Board of Education cartoons image illustration picture
Brown v. Board of Education

Description:
Separate but equal doctrine, public education, violates the fourteenth amendment, tangibly equal resources and facilities, segregation.

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Griswold v. Connecticut cartoons image illustration picture
Griswold v. Connecticut

Description:
Right to privacy, marital relationship, contraceptives, penumbra, zone of privacy.

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Hamdi v. Rumsfeld cartoons image illustration picture
Hamdi v. Rumsfeld

Description:
Citizen "enemy combatant" has due process right to contest his detention, non detention act.

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Lawrence v. Texas cartoons image illustration picture
Lawrence v. Texas

Description:
Texas sodomy statute law, private consensual sexual conduct.

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Bush v. Gore cartoons image illustration picture
Bush v. Gore

Description:
Constitutional standards apply to recounts, clear standards, determine voter intent, recount of votes.

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Marbury v. Madison cartoons image illustration picture
Marbury v. Madison

Description:
Judiciary act, power to declare unconstitutional, appellate jurisdiction, mandamus, original jurisdiction.

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Plessy v. Ferguson cartoons image illustration picture
Plessy v. Ferguson

Description:
Separate but equal accommodations, racial inferiority, the fourteenth amendment, separate but equal doctrine.

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San Antonio v. Rodriguez cartoons image illustration picture
San Antonio v. Rodriguez

Description:
Appropriations among school districts, comparative wealth, education is not a fundamental right.

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Griswold v. Connecticut cartoons image illustration picture
Griswold v. Connecticut

Description:
Right to privacy, marital relationship, contraceptives, penumbra, zone of privacy.

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Shelley v. Kraemer cartoons image illustration picture
Shelley v. Kraemer

Description:
Judicial enforcement of racially restrictive covenants constitutes state action, fourteenth amendment.

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Texas v. Johnson cartoons image illustration picture
Texas v. Johnson

Description:
Burning the American flag, freedom of expression, first amendment, symbolic speech.

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Hamdi v. Rumsfeld cartoons image illustration picture
Hamdi v. Rumsfeld

Description:
Citizen "enemy combatant" has due process right to contest his detention, non detention act.

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Washington v. Glucksberg cartoons image illustration picture
Washington v. Glucksberg

Description:
Laws prohibiting physician assisted suicide, terminally ill, mentally competent, patients in extreme pain, right to die.

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Gonzales v. Raich cartoons image illustration picture
Gonzales v. Raich

Description:
Medical marijuana, cancer, terminally ill, prescription morphine.

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Lawrence v. Texas cartoons image illustration picture
Lawrence v. Texas

Description:
Texas sodomy statute law, private consensual sexual conduct.

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Marbury v. Madison cartoons image illustration picture
Marbury v. Madison

Description:
Judiciary act, power to declare unconstitutional, appellate jurisdiction, mandamus, original jurisdiction.

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Plessy v. Ferguson cartoons image illustration picture
Plessy v. Ferguson

Description:
Separate but equal accommodations, racial inferiority, the fourteenth amendment, separate but equal doctrine.

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Kelo v. New London cartoons image illustration picture
Kelo v. New London

Description:
Fifth amendment, eminent domain just compensation, public purpose, takings of private property, private economic development.

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San Antonio v. Rodriguez cartoons image illustration picture
San Antonio v. Rodriguez

Description:
Appropriations among school districts, comparative wealth, education is not a fundamental right.

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Cooper v. Aaron cartoons image illustration picture
Cooper v. Aaron

Description:
School desegregation, Brown v. Board of Education, supremacy clause.

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Loving v. Virginia cartoons image illustration picture
Loving v. Virginia

Description:
Interracial marriage, equal protection.

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Yick Wo v. Hopkins cartoons image illustration picture
Yick Wo v. Hopkins

Description:
Equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment prohibits racial discrimination.

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Washington v. Davis cartoons image illustration picture
Washington v. Davis

Description:
Disparate impact; disparate treatment.

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Moose Lodge No. 107 v. Irvis cartoons image illustration picture
Moose Lodge No. 107 v. Irvis

Description:
Private club; state action.

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Edmonson v. Leesville Concrete Company, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
Edmonson v. Leesville Concrete Company, Inc.

Description:
Peremptory challenge; Batson challenge, state action, voir dire, exlude black jurors.

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City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Company cartoons image illustration picture
City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Company

Description:
Racial quota; strict scrutiny, remedial plan.

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Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena cartoons image illustration picture
Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena

Description:
Affirmative action; strict scrutiny, race based compensation incentive, state actor.

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Shaw v. Reno cartoons image illustration picture
Shaw v. Reno

Description:
Gerrymandering; reapportionment; strict scrutiny; voting rights act, odd shaped voting districts.

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Railway Express Agency, Inc. v. New York cartoons image illustration picture
Railway Express Agency, Inc. v. New York

Description:
Equal protection; rational basis test.

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Frontiero v. Richardson cartoons image illustration picture
Frontiero v. Richardson

Description:
Sex suspect classification, similarly situated members of different sexes.

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Craig v. Boren cartoons image illustration picture
Craig v. Boren

Description:
Intermediate scrutiny, gender based classifications.

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Shelley v. Kraemer cartoons image illustration picture
Shelley v. Kraemer

Description:
Judicial enforcement of racially restrictive covenants constitutes state action, fourteenth amendment.

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United States v. Virginia cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Virginia

Description:
Public university gender classification requires exceedingly persuasive justification.

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Texas v. Johnson cartoons image illustration picture
Texas v. Johnson

Description:
Burning the American flag, freedom of expression, first amendment, symbolic speech.

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Washington v. Glucksberg cartoons image illustration picture
Washington v. Glucksberg

Description:
Laws prohibiting physician assisted suicide, terminally ill, mentally competent, patients in extreme pain, right to die.

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City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center cartoons image illustration picture
City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center

Description:
Quasi suspect classification.

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Gonzales v. Raich cartoons image illustration picture
Gonzales v. Raich

Description:
Medical marijuana, cancer, terminally ill, prescription morphine.

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Romer v. Evans cartoons image illustration picture
Romer v. Evans

Description:
Equal protection clause; homosexual rights, state action.

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Baehr v. Lewin cartoons image illustration picture
Baehr v. Lewin

Description:
Prohibition on same sex marriage; gay rights.

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Palko v. Connecticut cartoons image illustration picture
Palko v. Connecticut

Description:
Fifth amendment; double jeapordy clause; concept of ordered liberty.

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Adamson v. California cartoons image illustration picture
Adamson v. California

Description:
Right against self incrimination.

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Kelo v. New London cartoons image illustration picture
Kelo v. New London

Description:
Fifth amendment, eminent domain just compensation, public purpose, takings of private property, private economic development.

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Skinner v. Oklahoma ex rel. Williamson cartoons image illustration picture
Skinner v. Oklahoma ex rel. Williamson

Description:
Forced sterilization violate due process.

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Lochner v. New York cartoons image illustration picture
Lochner v. New York

Description:
Police power. The Fourteenth Amendment guarantees an individual the right to make a contract affecting his or her personal business.

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Cooper v. Aaron cartoons image illustration picture
Cooper v. Aaron

Description:
School desegregation, Brown v. Board of Education, supremacy clause.

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Loving v. Virginia cartoons image illustration picture
Loving v. Virginia

Description:
Interracial marriage, equal protection.

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Yick Wo v. Hopkins cartoons image illustration picture
Yick Wo v. Hopkins

Description:
Equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment prohibits racial discrimination.

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Washington v. Davis cartoons image illustration picture
Washington v. Davis

Description:
Disparate impact; disparate treatment.

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Moose Lodge No. 107 v. Irvis cartoons image illustration picture
Moose Lodge No. 107 v. Irvis

Description:
Private club; state action.

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Edmonson v. Leesville Concrete Company, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
Edmonson v. Leesville Concrete Company, Inc.

Description:
Peremptory challenge; Batson challenge, state action, voir dire, exlude black jurors.

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City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Company cartoons image illustration picture
City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Company

Description:
Racial quota; strict scrutiny, remedial plan.

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Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena cartoons image illustration picture
Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena

Description:
Affirmative action; strict scrutiny, race based compensation incentive, state actor.

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Shaw v. Reno cartoons image illustration picture
Shaw v. Reno

Description:
Gerrymandering; reapportionment; strict scrutiny; voting rights act, odd shaped voting districts.

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Railway Express Agency, Inc. v. New York cartoons image illustration picture
Railway Express Agency, Inc. v. New York

Description:
Equal protection; rational basis test.

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Frontiero v. Richardson cartoons image illustration picture
Frontiero v. Richardson

Description:
Sex suspect classification, similarly situated members of different sexes.

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Craig v. Boren cartoons image illustration picture
Craig v. Boren

Description:
Intermediate scrutiny, gender based classifications.

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United States v. Virginia cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Virginia

Description:
Public university gender classification requires exceedingly persuasive justification.

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City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center cartoons image illustration picture
City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center

Description:
Quasi suspect classification.

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Romer v. Evans cartoons image illustration picture
Romer v. Evans

Description:
Equal protection clause; homosexual rights, state action.

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Baehr v. Lewin cartoons image illustration picture
Baehr v. Lewin

Description:
Prohibition on same sex marriage; gay rights.

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Penn Central Transportation Company v. City of New York cartoons image illustration picture
Penn Central Transportation Company v. City of New York

Description:
Eminent domain clause; takings clause, landmark, payment of just compensation.

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Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council cartoons image illustration picture
Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council

Description:
Eminent domain clause; takings clause, nuisance, regulation, payment of just compensation.

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Tahoe Sierra Preservation Council, Inc. v. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency cartoons image illustration picture
Tahoe Sierra Preservation Council, Inc. v. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency

Description:
Moratorium on develepment as eminent domain clause; takings clause, payment of just compensation.

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Reynolds v. Sims cartoons image illustration picture
Reynolds v. Sims

Description:
Reapportionment; dilution of representation, equal protection clause.

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Palko v. Connecticut cartoons image illustration picture
Palko v. Connecticut

Description:
Fifth amendment; double jeapordy clause; concept of ordered liberty.

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Edgewood Independent School District v. Kirby cartoons image illustration picture
Edgewood Independent School District v. Kirby

Description:
Public school expenditures among districts must be equal.

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Saenz v. Roe cartoons image illustration picture
Saenz v. Roe

Description:
Privileges and immunities clause; welfare benefits, length of residency.

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Meyer v. Nebraska cartoons image illustration picture
Meyer v. Nebraska

Description:
Liberty interests, teach english only.

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Poe v. Ullman cartoons image illustration picture
Poe v. Ullman

Description:
Actual controversy, actual dispute, declaratory judgment, nullification, per legem terrae, ripeness.

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Roe v. Wade cartoons image illustration picture
Roe v. Wade

Description:
Complete ban on abortions violates the right to privacy, state, abortion laws, viable zone of privacy.

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Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey cartoons image illustration picture
Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey

Description:
Restrictions on abortions cannot unduly interfere with a woman's right to choose, judicial bypass, substantive due process, undue burden test.

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Adamson v. California cartoons image illustration picture
Adamson v. California

Description:
Right against self incrimination.

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Board of Regents v. Roth cartoons image illustration picture
Board of Regents v. Roth

Description:
Due process, contract rights, property interests, procedural due process.

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Mathews v. Eldridge cartoons image illustration picture
Mathews v. Eldridge

Description:
A hearing, termination of social security disability benefits, terminating disability benefits; administrative procedures, due process, entitlement.

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R.A.V. v. City of Saint Paul cartoons image illustration picture
R.A.V. v. City of Saint Paul

Description:
Fighting words may be prohibited, ordinance, target race, color, creed, religion, or gender violates the first amendment, content based restriction, defamation, fighting words, libel.

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Abrams v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
Abrams v. United States

Description:
The first amendment does not protect speech aimed at influencing the american public against the war the government is trying to wage.

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Skinner v. Oklahoma ex rel. Williamson cartoons image illustration picture
Skinner v. Oklahoma ex rel. Williamson

Description:
Forced sterilization violate due process.

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Brandenburg v. Ohio cartoons image illustration picture
Brandenburg v. Ohio

Description:
Speech advocating social change is protected by the first amendment, speech that advocates violence but does not incite immediate use of force or violence.

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New York Times Company v. Sullivan cartoons image illustration picture
New York Times Company v. Sullivan

Description:
A public official may receive damages only for malicious libel, showing of actual malice, defamation.

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Bartnicki v. Vopper cartoons image illustration picture
Bartnicki v. Vopper

Description:
Illegally obtained information, matter of public significance, chilling effect, intervenor.

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Miller v. California cartoons image illustration picture
Miller v. California

Description:
Distribution of obscene material, the first amendment, sexually explicit material, prurient interest, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value, obscenity, pornography.

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City of Renton v. Playtime Theaters, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
City of Renton v. Playtime Theaters, Inc.

Description:
Zoning ordinances may target secondary effects of speech without offending the first amendment, free speech, content based restriction.

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Cohen v. California cartoons image illustration picture
Cohen v. California

Description:
Vulgar speech does not disturb the peace, offensive speech.

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Virginia State Board of Pharmacy v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council cartoons image illustration picture
Virginia State Board of Pharmacy v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council

Description:
The first amendment protects some commercial speech, flow of commercial information.

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Buckley v. Valeo cartoons image illustration picture
Buckley v. Valeo

Description:
Contributions to political campaigns are protected as speech, limits on campaign contributions, limits on campaign expenditures, the first amendment.

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Lochner v. New York cartoons image illustration picture
Lochner v. New York

Description:
Police power. The Fourteenth Amendment guarantees an individual the right to make a contract affecting his or her personal business.

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United States v. Grace cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Grace

Description:
The first amendment prohibits denying access to a traditional public forum, sidewalks, forums for public expression, designated public forum.

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Ward v. Rock Against Racism cartoons image illustration picture
Ward v. Rock Against Racism

Description:
Noise ordinances advance a substantial government goal, limit speech, protect a legitimate government interest, content based, foreclose alternate avenues of communication; least restrictive intrusive.

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International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Inc. v. Lee cartoons image illustration picture
International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Inc. v. Lee

Description:
An airport terminal is not a public forum, regulations prohibiting solicitation for donations and religious leafleting.

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Rust v. Sullivan cartoons image illustration picture
Rust v. Sullivan

Description:
Funding, abortion counseling programs, violate the first amendment.

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Legal Services Corporation v. Valazquez cartoons image illustration picture
Legal Services Corporation v. Valazquez

Description:
Federal grant money, challenge welfare laws, the first amendment, legal assistance, welfare recipients.

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Penn Central Transportation Company v. City of New York cartoons image illustration picture
Penn Central Transportation Company v. City of New York

Description:
Eminent domain clause; takings clause, landmark, payment of just compensation.

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Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier cartoons image illustration picture
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier

Description:
Schools may exercise editorial control over student speech in school sponsored activities, the first amendment.

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Madsen v. Womens Health Center, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
Madsen v. Womens Health Center, Inc.

Description:
Injunction, the first amendment protection, narrowly tailored, prior restraint.

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Board of Airport Commissioners v. Jews for Jesus, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
Board of Airport Commissioners v. Jews for Jesus, Inc.

Description:
Overbreadth doctrine, a resolution that prohibits all conduct or speech protected by the first amendment is unconstitutional.

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Board of Directors of Rotary International v. Rotary Club of Duarte cartoons image illustration picture
Board of Directors of Rotary International v. Rotary Club of Duarte

Description:
Private association, denial of membership to women, unruh act to the california rotary clubs, the right of expressive association, the first amendment.

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Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council cartoons image illustration picture
Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council

Description:
Eminent domain clause; takings clause, nuisance, regulation, payment of just compensation.

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Employment Division Department of Human Resources v. Smith cartoons image illustration picture
Employment Division Department of Human Resources v. Smith

Description:
Free exercise clause, unemployment benefits, peyote, unemployment compensation, state criminal statute, religious ritual.

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Tahoe Sierra Preservation Council, Inc. v. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency cartoons image illustration picture
Tahoe Sierra Preservation Council, Inc. v. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency

Description:
Moratorium on develepment as eminent domain clause; takings clause, payment of just compensation.

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Everson v. Board of Education cartoons image illustration picture
Everson v. Board of Education

Description:
Government reimbursement to facilitate transportation of students to school does not violate the establishment clause.

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Lee v. Weisman cartoons image illustration picture
Lee v. Weisman

Description:
Prayers at commencement exercises violate the first amendment, state endorsement of religion.

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Zelman v. Simmons Harris cartoons image illustration picture
Zelman v. Simmons Harris

Description:
School voucher program, religious affiliated schools, vouchers to parents, not violate the establishment clause of the first amendment.

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McCulloch v. Maryland cartoons image illustration picture
McCulloch v. Maryland

Description:
Congress power to enact legislation to carry out its powers, constitutional authority, pass legislation, establish a national bank that is exempt from state taxing powers. necessary and proper clause.

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Reynolds v. Sims cartoons image illustration picture
Reynolds v. Sims

Description:
Reapportionment; dilution of representation, equal protection clause.

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Gibbons v. Ogden cartoons image illustration picture
Gibbons v. Ogden

Description:
The constitution's grant of authority to regulate commerce among the states must necessarily include the ability to regulate navigation; commerce clause; dormant commerce clause; supremacy clause.

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United States v. Darby cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Darby

Description:
Intrastate components of interstate commerce fall within the commerce clause, ability to regulate certain intrastate activities.

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Edgewood Independent School District v. Kirby cartoons image illustration picture
Edgewood Independent School District v. Kirby

Description:
Public school expenditures among districts must be equal.

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Saenz v. Roe cartoons image illustration picture
Saenz v. Roe

Description:
Privileges and immunities clause; welfare benefits, length of residency.

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Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States

Description:
Racial discrimination has an economic impact and so may be regulated by congress under the commerce clause.

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Meyer v. Nebraska cartoons image illustration picture
Meyer v. Nebraska

Description:
Liberty interests, teach english only.

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United States v. Lopez cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Lopez

Description:
Enact school gun possession laws, connected with interstate commerce, congressional interference in a purely local concern.

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Poe v. Ullman cartoons image illustration picture
Poe v. Ullman

Description:
Actual controversy, actual dispute, declaratory judgment, nullification, per legem terrae, ripeness.

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Roe v. Wade cartoons image illustration picture
Roe v. Wade

Description:
Complete ban on abortions violates the right to privacy, state, abortion laws, viable zone of privacy.

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Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey cartoons image illustration picture
Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey

Description:
Restrictions on abortions cannot unduly interfere with a woman's right to choose, judicial bypass, substantive due process, undue burden test.

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The Civil Rights Cases cartoons image illustration picture
The Civil Rights Cases

Description:
The civil rights act was intended to protect the legal and civil rights of all citizens. civil rights civil rights act.

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Jones v. Alfred H Meyer Company cartoons image illustration picture
Jones v. Alfred H Meyer Company

Description:
Congress has the authority to prohibit private discrimination in order to give full effect to the provisions of the thirteenth amendment.

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Board of Regents v. Roth cartoons image illustration picture
Board of Regents v. Roth

Description:
Due process, contract rights, property interests, procedural due process.

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Katzenbach v. Morgan cartoons image illustration picture
Katzenbach v. Morgan

Description:
State voting requirements cannot conflict with federal provisions, federal voting rights act. supremacy clause.

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Mathews v. Eldridge cartoons image illustration picture
Mathews v. Eldridge

Description:
A hearing, termination of social security disability benefits, terminating disability benefits; administrative procedures, due process, entitlement.

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City of Rome v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
City of Rome v. United States

Description:
Congress has the right to prohibit unintended effects of practices that do not alone violate the 15th amendment, prohibit voting practices, discriminatory purpose, discriminatory effect when applied.

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City of Boerne v. Flores cartoons image illustration picture
City of Boerne v. Flores

Description:
The religious freedom restoration act (rfra) exceeds congress' power under the fourteenth amendment and violates principles necessary to maintain separation of powers and a federal state balance.

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R.A.V. v. City of Saint Paul cartoons image illustration picture
R.A.V. v. City of Saint Paul

Description:
Fighting words may be prohibited, ordinance, target race, color, creed, religion, or gender violates the first amendment, content based restriction, defamation, fighting words, libel.

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United States v. Morrison cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Morrison

Description:
Congress may not regulate non economic, violent criminal conduct based solely on an assertion that the conduct has a negative impact on interstate commerce.

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Abrams v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
Abrams v. United States

Description:
The first amendment does not protect speech aimed at influencing the american public against the war the government is trying to wage.

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Brandenburg v. Ohio cartoons image illustration picture
Brandenburg v. Ohio

Description:
Speech advocating social change is protected by the first amendment, speech that advocates violence but does not incite immediate use of force or violence.

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South Dakota v. Dole cartoons image illustration picture
South Dakota v. Dole

Description:
Congress may condition payments of federal funds to states on their passage of laws restricting alcohol sales, spending power, twenty first amendment.

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New York Times Company v. Sullivan cartoons image illustration picture
New York Times Company v. Sullivan

Description:
A public official may receive damages only for malicious libel, showing of actual malice, defamation.

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Bartnicki v. Vopper cartoons image illustration picture
Bartnicki v. Vopper

Description:
Illegally obtained information, matter of public significance, chilling effect, intervenor.

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Miller v. California cartoons image illustration picture
Miller v. California

Description:
Distribution of obscene material, the first amendment, sexually explicit material, prurient interest, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value, obscenity, pornography.

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Missouri v. Holland cartoons image illustration picture
Missouri v. Holland

Description:
Treaties, superior to state laws, federal laws and regulations enacted pursuant to a validly entered treaty take precedence over the laws of the individual states.

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Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority cartoons image illustration picture
Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority

Description:
State and local government employers are subject to the FLSA, application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to local government employers does not violate the tenth amendment.

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City of Renton v. Playtime Theaters, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
City of Renton v. Playtime Theaters, Inc.

Description:
Zoning ordinances may target secondary effects of speech without offending the first amendment, free speech, content based restriction.

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New York v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
New York v. United States

Description:
Congress cannot impose a regulatory process on the individual states in violation of the tenth amendment, forcing individual states to comply with nationwide regulations.

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Printz v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
Printz v. United States

Description:
Congress may not compel state and local law enforcement officers to administer the brady act, federal law that requires a particular action by a state or local officer.

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Cohen v. California cartoons image illustration picture
Cohen v. California

Description:
Vulgar speech does not disturb the peace, offensive speech.

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Gibbons v. Ogden cartoons image illustration picture
Gibbons v. Ogden

Description:
States may not exercise regulatory power delegated to congress simply because congress has failed to act, absence of congressional action to regulate commerce.

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City of Philadelphia v. New Jersey cartoons image illustration picture
City of Philadelphia v. New Jersey

Description:
Restrict the flow of waste, landfills, states may not regulate commercial activity within their borders in such a way as to favor state interests. Dormant commerce clause.

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Kassel v. Consolidated Freightways Corporation cartoons image illustration picture
Kassel v. Consolidated Freightways Corporation

Description:
State regulations having a direct impact on interstate commerce must be justifiable as a safety concern.

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Virginia State Board of Pharmacy v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council cartoons image illustration picture
Virginia State Board of Pharmacy v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council

Description:
The first amendment protects some commercial speech, flow of commercial information.

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United Building and Construction Trades Council of Camden County v. Mayor and Council of Camden cartoons image illustration picture
United Building and Construction Trades Council of Camden County v. Mayor and Council of Camden

Description:
Municipal ordinances that discriminate based on local residency may violate the privileges and immunities clause, municipal residency requirements have interstate effect.

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Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer The Steel Seizure Case cartoons image illustration picture
Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer The Steel Seizure Case

Description:
Presidential authority must be explicit, president, specific constitutional provisions, there is no inherent executive authority, executive order.

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United States v. Nixon cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Nixon

Description:
Executive privilege does not shield the president from the judicial process, recognized claim of privilege, due process considerations, criminal trial, executive immunity, in camera inspection, speech or debate clause.

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Buckley v. Valeo cartoons image illustration picture
Buckley v. Valeo

Description:
Contributions to political campaigns are protected as speech, limits on campaign contributions, limits on campaign expenditures, the first amendment.

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Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha cartoons image illustration picture
Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha

Description:
A grant of executive authority cannot be overridden by a congressional veto, once congress has acted to vest authority in an administrative agency, it cannot act to overturn the action of that agency in the absence of further legislation.

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Clinton v. New York cartoons image illustration picture
Clinton v. New York

Description:
The line item veto violates the constitution, line item veto act, virtual amendment of congressional acts by the president, delegation doctrine.

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United States v. Grace cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Grace

Description:
The first amendment prohibits denying access to a traditional public forum, sidewalks, forums for public expression, designated public forum.

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Bowsher v. Synar cartoons image illustration picture
Bowsher v. Synar

Description:
Sequestration, budget appropriations cannot be delegated to a legislator the delegation of executive functions to a legislative administrator violates the constitutionally imposed doctrine of separation of powers.

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Morrison v. Olson cartoons image illustration picture
Morrison v. Olson

Description:
The appointments clause of the constitution permits congress to delegate to the courts the ability to appoint special prosecutors who are inferior officers. Independent counsel.

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Ward v. Rock Against Racism cartoons image illustration picture
Ward v. Rock Against Racism

Description:
Noise ordinances advance a substantial government goal, limit speech, protect a legitimate government interest, content based, foreclose alternate avenues of communication; least restrictive intrusive.

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Ex Parte McCardle cartoons image illustration picture
Ex Parte McCardle

Description:
Congress has constitutional authority to regulate the appellate jurisdiction of the federal courts and the supreme court. Repeal.

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International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Inc. v. Lee cartoons image illustration picture
International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Inc. v. Lee

Description:
An airport terminal is not a public forum, regulations prohibiting solicitation for donations and religious leafleting.

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Baker v. Carr cartoons image illustration picture
Baker v. Carr

Description:
The guaranty clause of the constitution, judicially resolving an otherwise political question, political right; the equal protection clause, judicial question.

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Nixon v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
Nixon v. United States

Description:
Nonjusticiable, impeachment of a federal judge, U.S. Senate, sole authority; judicial review, judicial participation.

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Allen v. Wright cartoons image illustration picture
Allen v. Wright

Description:
Case or controversy requirement, cognizable controversy, redress, confer standing, satisfy the federal standing requirement, present injury.

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Rust v. Sullivan cartoons image illustration picture
Rust v. Sullivan

Description:
Funding, abortion counseling programs, violate the first amendment.

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Legal Services Corporation v. Valazquez cartoons image illustration picture
Legal Services Corporation v. Valazquez

Description:
Federal grant money, challenge welfare laws, the first amendment, legal assistance, welfare recipients.

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Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife cartoons image illustration picture
Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife

Description:
Injury in fact and redressability must be established even under a federal statute conferring a private cause of action, private right of action, standing, personal injury, public, injury in fact. Injury to the environment.

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Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Enviornmental Services TOC, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Enviornmental Services TOC, Inc.

Description:
Plaintiff residents in the area of South Carolina's North Tyger River had standing to sue an industrial polluter against whom various deterrent civil penalties were being pursued.

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Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier cartoons image illustration picture
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier

Description:
Schools may exercise editorial control over student speech in school sponsored activities, the first amendment.

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Ashcroft v. American Civil Liberties Union cartoons image illustration picture
Ashcroft v. American Civil Liberties Union

Description:
Harmful internet content, least restrictive alternative to protect minors, suppresses a substantial amount of protected speech, unconstitutional, less restrictive alternatives exist.

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Ashcroft v. The Free Speech Coalition cartoons image illustration picture
Ashcroft v. The Free Speech Coalition

Description:
Overbreadth doctrine, speech restrictions prohibiting a substantial amount of protected speech are overbroad and unconstitutional, child pornography, obscenity.

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Madsen v. Womens Health Center, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
Madsen v. Womens Health Center, Inc.

Description:
Injunction, the first amendment protection, narrowly tailored, prior restraint.

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Board of Airport Commissioners v. Jews for Jesus, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
Board of Airport Commissioners v. Jews for Jesus, Inc.

Description:
Overbreadth doctrine, a resolution that prohibits all conduct or speech protected by the first amendment is unconstitutional.

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Board of Trustees University of Alabama v. Garrett cartoons image illustration picture
Board of Trustees University of Alabama v. Garrett

Description:
States are not liable under the ada the americans with disabilities act, liable for employment discrimination, disability. eleventh amendment, equal protection, sovereign immunity.

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Board of Directors of Rotary International v. Rotary Club of Duarte cartoons image illustration picture
Board of Directors of Rotary International v. Rotary Club of Duarte

Description:
Private association, denial of membership to women, unruh act to the california rotary clubs, the right of expressive association, the first amendment.

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Brentwood Academy v. Tennessee Secondary School Athletic Association cartoons image illustration picture
Brentwood Academy v. Tennessee Secondary School Athletic Association

Description:
Private associations can be state actors, state action, close nexus, challenged action, seemingly private behavior.

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Brown v. Legal Foundation of Washington cartoons image illustration picture
Brown v. Legal Foundation of Washington

Description:
Iolta accounts are not takings requiring just compensation. Just compensation is measured by the property owner's loss rather than the government's gain.

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Bush v. Gore cartoons image illustration picture
Bush v. Gore

Description:
Constitutional standards apply to recounts. In the absence of clear standards to determine voter intent, a recount of votes cannot be permitted.

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City of Littleton Colorado v. Z.J. Gifts cartoons image illustration picture
City of Littleton Colorado v. Z.J. Gifts

Description:
Licensing scheme implicating first amendment interests must provide for "prompt judicial review" of any administrative denial of a license.

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Easley v. Cromartie cartoons image illustration picture
Easley v. Cromartie

Description:
Legislative determinations, district boundary challenges, legislatively drawn boundarie, legitimate political objectives, traditional districting principles.

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Elk Grove Unified School Dist. V. Newdow cartoons image illustration picture
Elk Grove Unified School Dist. V. Newdow

Description:
Federal courts abstain from resolving state domestic relations issues, religious education, abstention, standing.

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Engel v. Vitale cartoons image illustration picture
Engel v. Vitale

Description:
Organized prayers in public schools are unconstitutional, the establishment clause of the first amendment, compose official prayers, religious program carried on by the government.

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Employment Division Department of Human Resources v. Smith cartoons image illustration picture
Employment Division Department of Human Resources v. Smith

Description:
Free exercise clause, unemployment benefits, peyote, unemployment compensation, state criminal statute, religious ritual.

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Florida Lime and Avocado Growers, Inc. v. Paul, Director, Dept. of Agriculture of California cartoons image illustration picture
Florida Lime and Avocado Growers, Inc. v. Paul, Director, Dept. of Agriculture of California

Description:
Conflict preemption requires impossible compliance with both federal and state regulations.

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Grutter v. Bollinger cartoons image illustration picture
Grutter v. Bollinger

Description:
Educational diversity is a compelling state interest, racial classifications, narrowly tailored, strict scrutiny.

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Hamdi v. Rumsfeld cartoons image illustration picture
Hamdi v. Rumsfeld

Description:
Individual due process rights must be balanced against national security, citizen detainee, classification as an enemy combatant, habeas corpus, war power.

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Lawrence v. Texas cartoons image illustration picture
Lawrence v. Texas

Description:
Regulation of sexual expression violates the fundamental right of privacy, state laws criminalizing homosexual relations violate substantive due process. Sodomy.

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Everson v. Board of Education cartoons image illustration picture
Everson v. Board of Education

Description:
Government reimbursement to facilitate transportation of students to school does not violate the establishment clause.

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Locke v. Davey cartoons image illustration picture
Locke v. Davey

Description:
Public funding of religious instruction justifies scholarship restrictions, the free exercise clause, state financed religious instruction, establishment clause.

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Lee v. Weisman cartoons image illustration picture
Lee v. Weisman

Description:
Prayers at commencement exercises violate the first amendment, state endorsement of religion.

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Lorillard Tobacco Company v. Reilly cartoons image illustration picture
Lorillard Tobacco Company v. Reilly

Description:
Federal cigarette advertising regulations preempt conflicting state regulations, congress expressly preempts state or local action, conflicting state regulation must yield to federal law, supremacy clause.

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Lorillard Tobacco Company v. Reilly2 cartoons image illustration picture
Lorillard Tobacco Company v. Reilly2

Description:
Restrictions on commercial speech are not subject to strict scrutiny.

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Zelman v. Simmons Harris cartoons image illustration picture
Zelman v. Simmons Harris

Description:
School voucher program, religious affiliated schools, vouchers to parents, not violate the establishment clause of the first amendment.

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Nevada Department of Human Resources v. Hibbs cartoons image illustration picture
Nevada Department of Human Resources v. Hibbs

Description:
The FMLA; state governments are liable for money damages for interfering or restraining state employees exercise of their rights under the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993; family leave.

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McCulloch v. Maryland cartoons image illustration picture
McCulloch v. Maryland

Description:
Congress power to enact legislation to carry out its powers, constitutional authority, pass legislation, establish a national bank that is exempt from state taxing powers. necessary and proper clause.

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Nguyen v. Immigration and Naturalization Service cartoons image illustration picture
Nguyen v. Immigration and Naturalization Service

Description:
Gender based classification, basic biological differences between men and women factor into an equal protection analysis, substantially related to achieving an important governmental objective.

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Palazzolo v. Rhode Island cartoons image illustration picture
Palazzolo v. Rhode Island

Description:
Eminent domain, inverse condemnation, just compensation, ripeness, taking, environmental concerns justify limitations on development, when a regulation denies all economically beneficial or productive use of property.

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Palmore v. Sidoti cartoons image illustration picture
Palmore v. Sidoti

Description:
Custody determinations, potential racial bias against the child, courts may not use private racial bias as a justification for official court action.

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Pierce County Washington v. Guillen cartoons image illustration picture
Pierce County Washington v. Guillen

Description:
Congress may regulate intrastate activity that affects interstate commerce, the commerce clause, instrumentalities of interstate commerce.

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Republican Party of Minnesota v. White cartoons image illustration picture
Republican Party of Minnesota v. White

Description:
Judicial impartiality is not a compelling enough interest to justify suppressing candidates views, government regulations that supress speech on the basis of its content must be narrowly tailored, first amendment.

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Sabri v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
Sabri v. United States

Description:
Spending clause, appropriate federal funds for the general welfare, facial challenge, necessary and proper clause, spending power.

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Shaw v. Murphy cartoons image illustration picture
Shaw v. Murphy

Description:
Prison officials have discretion to restrict prisoners speech, restrictions on prisoner's communication mst be "reasonably related to legitimate penological interests."

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Silveira v. Lockyer cartoons image illustration picture
Silveira v. Lockyer

Description:
The collective rights interpretation of the second amendment is affirmed; right to maintain an effective state militia and does not establish an individual right to own or possess firearms for personal use, right to bear arms.

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Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. United States Army Corps of Engineers cartoons image illustration picture
Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. United States Army Corps of Engineers

Description:
Administrative action conflicting with clear statutory language is not entitled to deference, administrative authority; commerce clause.

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State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company v. Campbell cartoons image illustration picture
State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company v. Campbell

Description:
Punitive damages awards must be weighed against the compensatory damages; reprehensibility of the defendant's conduct, disparity between actual harm caused and amount of the punitive damages awarded. bad faith, supersedeas bond.

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Tennessee v. Lane cartoons image illustration picture
Tennessee v. Lane

Description:
Title ii of the ada is a valid exercise, abrogate the state's eleventh amendment immunity, congress must have unequivocally expressed its intent; americans with disabilities act.

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Thomas and Windy City Hemp Development Board v. Chicago Park District cartoons image illustration picture
Thomas and Windy City Hemp Development Board v. Chicago Park District

Description:
Content based restriction, prior restraint, requiring permits for all public assemblies does not infringe on the freedom of speech, content neutral regulation of access to public property, provides adequate standards.

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United States v. American Library Association, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. American Library Association, Inc.

Description:
Libraries do not violate the first amendment by blocking pornography, censor.

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United States v. Seeger cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Seeger

Description:
Religion, the test of whether a belief "in a relation to a supreme being", sincere and meaningful, occupies a place in the life of its possessor parallel to that filled by the orthodox belief in god.

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Vieth v. Jubelirer cartoons image illustration picture
Vieth v. Jubelirer

Description:
Political gerrymandering claims are not justiciable, no judicially discoverable and manageable standards for resolving the issues presented, nonjusticiable political question, justiciability.

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Gibbons v. Ogden cartoons image illustration picture
Gibbons v. Ogden

Description:
The constitution's grant of authority to regulate commerce among the states must necessarily include the ability to regulate navigation; commerce clause; dormant commerce clause; supremacy clause.

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Virginia v. Black cartoons image illustration picture
Virginia v. Black

Description:
Burning a cross, violates the first amendment, state statute banning cross burning with the intent to intimidate another person, free expression, prima facie evidence.

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Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc. v. Village of Stratton cartoons image illustration picture
Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc. v. Village of Stratton

Description:
Freedom of speech includes the right to disseminate religious views at private residences; requiring a permit, door to door activities on private residential property.

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Whitman v. American Trucking Association, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
Whitman v. American Trucking Association, Inc.

Description:
Delegation doctrine; executive action involves a certain degree of administrative discretion; intelligible principle; legislative power; separation of powers.

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United States v. Darby cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Darby

Description:
Intrastate components of interstate commerce fall within the commerce clause, ability to regulate certain intrastate activities.

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Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States

Description:
Racial discrimination has an economic impact and so may be regulated by congress under the commerce clause.

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Gratz v. Bollinger cartoons image illustration picture
Gratz v. Bollinger

Description:
A point system emphasizing minority status violates equal protection; university admissions policies; take race into account, affirmative action; reverse discrimination.

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Rogers v. Lodge cartoons image illustration picture
Rogers v. Lodge

Description:
Discriminatory at large voting schemes are unconstitutional; multimember districts violate the fourteenth amendment; motivated by a discriminatory purpose.

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United States v. Lopez cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Lopez

Description:
Enact school gun possession laws, connected with interstate commerce, congressional interference in a purely local concern.

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McCleskey v. Kemp cartoons image illustration picture
McCleskey v. Kemp

Description:
forthcoming

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Mobile v. Bolden cartoons image illustration picture
Mobile v. Bolden

Description:
At-large system violate Amendments Fourteen or Fifteen or the Voting Rights Act on if there is discriminatory intent.

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Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corporation cartoons image illustration picture
Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corporation

Description:
Disproportionate impact; equal protection violation; proof of intentional or purposeful discrimination; disparate impact; invidious discrimination; zoning.

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The Civil Rights Cases cartoons image illustration picture
The Civil Rights Cases

Description:
The civil rights act was intended to protect the legal and civil rights of all citizens. civil rights civil rights act.

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Hill v. Colorado cartoons image illustration picture
Hill v. Colorado

Description:
Confrontational speakers; unwilling recipients; a reasonable restriction on the time, place, and manner of protected speech does not violate the first amendment; content-based restriction; forum.

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Martin v. Hunter's Lessee cartoons image illustration picture
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee

Description:
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee, the Unites States Supreme Court is the singular revising authority to control discordant state court judgments and harmonize them.

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Desegratation Laws cartoons image illustration picture
Desegratation Laws

Description:
Cooper v. Aaron.

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Political Question Doctrine cartoons image illustration picture
Political Question Doctrine

Description:
Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency, states can sue over global warming, case or controversy requirement. Environmental attorney. Damage to the environment.

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Jones v. Alfred H Meyer Company cartoons image illustration picture
Jones v. Alfred H Meyer Company

Description:
Congress has the authority to prohibit private discrimination in order to give full effect to the provisions of the thirteenth amendment.

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Commerce Power cartoons image illustration picture
Commerce Power

Description:
Gibbons v. Ogden.

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Commerce Clause cartoons image illustration picture
Commerce Clause

Description:
Hammer v. Dagenhart [The Child Labor Case], prohibiting the use of the facilities of interstate commerce to effect an intended evil.

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Medical Marijuana cartoons image illustration picture
Medical Marijuana

Description:
Gonzales v. Raich, medicinal marijuana violates federal drug laws under the commerce clause powers.

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Dormant Commerce Clause cartoons image illustration picture
Dormant Commerce Clause

Description:
C&A Carbone, Inc. v. Clarkstown, ordinance that discriminates against interstate commerce in favor of local business or investment is per se invalid, unless municipality demonstrates it has no other means to advance a legitimate local interest.

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United Haulers Ass'n v. Oneida-Herkimer Solid Waste Management Authority cartoons image illustration picture
United Haulers Ass'n v. Oneida-Herkimer Solid Waste Management Authority

Description:
United Haulers Ass'n v. Oneida-Herkimer Solid Waste Management Authority, limits C&A Carbone, Inc v. Clarkstown holding regarding waste management activities by governments.

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Katzenbach v. Morgan cartoons image illustration picture
Katzenbach v. Morgan

Description:
State voting requirements cannot conflict with federal provisions, federal voting rights act. supremacy clause.

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City of Rome v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
City of Rome v. United States

Description:
Congress has the right to prohibit unintended effects of practices that do not alone violate the 15th amendment, prohibit voting practices, discriminatory purpose, discriminatory effect when applied.

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Barriers to Interstate Trade Violate the Commerce Clause cartoons image illustration picture
Barriers to Interstate Trade Violate the Commerce Clause

Description:
Baldwin v. G.A.F. Seelig, Inc., Barriers to commercial traffic between states, direct or indirect, violate the Commerce Clause when purpose and effect of such barriers is to suppress or mitigate the consequences of competition between states.

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City of Boerne v. Flores cartoons image illustration picture
City of Boerne v. Flores

Description:
The religious freedom restoration act (rfra) exceeds congress' power under the fourteenth amendment and violates principles necessary to maintain separation of powers and a federal state balance.

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United States v. Morrison cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Morrison

Description:
Congress may not regulate non economic, violent criminal conduct based solely on an assertion that the conduct has a negative impact on interstate commerce.

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Hamdan v. Rumsfeld cartoons image illustration picture
Hamdan v. Rumsfeld

Description:
Accused terrorists hearings before regular tribunals, military commissions.

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Kelo v. City of New London cartoons image illustration picture
Kelo v. City of New London

Description:
Eminent domain, just compensation, public purpose, takings of private property for use by other private citizens pursuant to a carefully considered economic development plan intended for a public purpose are valid under the Fifth Amendment.

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Partial Birth Abortion Ban cartoons image illustration picture
Partial Birth Abortion Ban

Description:
Gonzales v. Carhart, woman's health, late term abortions.

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Racial Balancing Strict Scrutiny cartoons image illustration picture
Racial Balancing Strict Scrutiny

Description:
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District, all racially based state action must pass strict scrutiny, even if the asserted purpose is racial balancing.

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South Dakota v. Dole cartoons image illustration picture
South Dakota v. Dole

Description:
Congress may condition payments of federal funds to states on their passage of laws restricting alcohol sales, spending power, twenty first amendment.

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Federal Election Commission v. Wisconsin Right to Life cartoons image illustration picture
Federal Election Commission v. Wisconsin Right to Life

Description:
Federal Election Commission v. Wisconsin Right to Life, Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act, corporations may sponsor issue oriented ads advertisements prior to an election.

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Ten Commandments Displays Establishment Clause cartoons image illustration picture
Ten Commandments Displays Establishment Clause

Description:
McCreary County v. ACLU of Kentucky, ten commandments displays in county courthouses violate the first amendment establishment clause.

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Missouri v. Holland cartoons image illustration picture
Missouri v. Holland

Description:
Treaties, superior to state laws, federal laws and regulations enacted pursuant to a validly entered treaty take precedence over the laws of the individual states.

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Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority cartoons image illustration picture
Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority

Description:
State and local government employers are subject to the FLSA, application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to local government employers does not violate the tenth amendment.

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Ten Commandments on State Capitol Grounds cartoons image illustration picture
Ten Commandments on State Capitol Grounds

Description:
Van Orden v. Perry, The mere fact that an object has some religious significance does not automatically mean that it runs afoul of the Establishment Clause.

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New York v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
New York v. United States

Description:
Congress cannot impose a regulatory process on the individual states in violation of the tenth amendment, forcing individual states to comply with nationwide regulations.

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Printz v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
Printz v. United States

Description:
Congress may not compel state and local law enforcement officers to administer the brady act, federal law that requires a particular action by a state or local officer.

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Gibbons v. Ogden cartoons image illustration picture
Gibbons v. Ogden

Description:
States may not exercise regulatory power delegated to congress simply because congress has failed to act, absence of congressional action to regulate commerce.

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City of Philadelphia v. New Jersey cartoons image illustration picture
City of Philadelphia v. New Jersey

Description:
Restrict the flow of waste, landfills, states may not regulate commercial activity within their borders in such a way as to favor state interests. Dormant commerce clause.

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Constitutional Interpretation cartoons image illustration picture
Constitutional Interpretation

Description:
District of Columbia v. Heller; Words and phrases in the Constitution are to be interpreted according to their normal and ordinary meanings as understood when the provision in question was adopted; second amendment.

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Kassel v. Consolidated Freightways Corporation cartoons image illustration picture
Kassel v. Consolidated Freightways Corporation

Description:
State regulations having a direct impact on interstate commerce must be justifiable as a safety concern.

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Taxpayer Standing to Challenge Executive Branch Actions cartoons image illustration picture
Taxpayer Standing to Challenge Executive Branch Actions

Description:
Hein v. Freedom from Religion Foundation; Taxpayers have standing to bring Establishment Clause challenges to a federal expenditure only if that expenditure is made pursuant to an explicit congressional authorization; establishment clause.

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United Building and Construction Trades Council of Camden County v. Mayor and Council of Camden cartoons image illustration picture
United Building and Construction Trades Council of Camden County v. Mayor and Council of Camden

Description:
Municipal ordinances that discriminate based on local residency may violate the privileges and immunities clause, municipal residency requirements have interstate effect.

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Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer The Steel Seizure Case cartoons image illustration picture
Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer The Steel Seizure Case

Description:
Presidential authority must be explicit, president, specific constitutional provisions, there is no inherent executive authority, executive order.

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Congressional Regulation of Intrastate Commerce cartoons image illustration picture
Congressional Regulation of Intrastate Commerce

Description:
Gonzales v. Raich; Medical marijuana; Prescription marijuana; THC; Congress may regulate intrastate activity if there is a rational basis for concluding that the activity may have a substantial effect on interstate commerce; necessary and proper clause.

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A State May Be Sued for Some ADA Violations cartoons image illustration picture
A State May Be Sued for Some ADA Violations

Description:
United States v. Georgia; The enforcement power in the Fourteenth Amendment gives Congress the power to create a private right of action for violations of the Amendment; Americans with Disabilities Act; sovereign immunity.

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United States v. Nixon cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Nixon

Description:
Executive privilege does not shield the president from the judicial process, recognized claim of privilege, due process considerations, criminal trial, executive immunity, in camera inspection, speech or debate clause.

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Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha cartoons image illustration picture
Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha

Description:
A grant of executive authority cannot be overridden by a congressional veto, once congress has acted to vest authority in an administrative agency, it cannot act to overturn the action of that agency in the absence of further legislation.

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Clinton v. New York cartoons image illustration picture
Clinton v. New York

Description:
The line item veto violates the constitution, line item veto act, virtual amendment of congressional acts by the president, delegation doctrine.

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Bowsher v. Synar cartoons image illustration picture
Bowsher v. Synar

Description:
Sequestration, budget appropriations cannot be delegated to a legislator the delegation of executive functions to a legislative administrator violates the constitutionally imposed doctrine of separation of powers.

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Morrison v. Olson cartoons image illustration picture
Morrison v. Olson

Description:
The appointments clause of the constitution permits congress to delegate to the courts the ability to appoint special prosecutors who are inferior officers. Independent counsel.

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Ex Parte McCardle cartoons image illustration picture
Ex Parte McCardle

Description:
Congress has constitutional authority to regulate the appellate jurisdiction of the federal courts and the supreme court. Repeal.

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Suspension Clause cartoons image illustration picture
Suspension Clause

Description:
Boumediene v. Bush; If the privilege of habeas corpus is to be denied, Congress must act in accordance with the requirements of the Suspension Clause; ultra vires.

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Baker v. Carr cartoons image illustration picture
Baker v. Carr

Description:
The guaranty clause of the constitution, judicially resolving an otherwise political question, political right; the equal protection clause, judicial question.

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Nixon v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
Nixon v. United States

Description:
Nonjusticiable, impeachment of a federal judge, U.S. Senate, sole authority; judicial review, judicial participation.

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Allen v. Wright cartoons image illustration picture
Allen v. Wright

Description:
Case or controversy requirement, cognizable controversy, redress, confer standing, satisfy the federal standing requirement, present injury.

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Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife cartoons image illustration picture
Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife

Description:
Injury in fact and redressability must be established even under a federal statute conferring a private cause of action, private right of action, standing, personal injury, public, injury in fact. Injury to the environment.

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Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Enviornmental Services TOC, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Enviornmental Services TOC, Inc.

Description:
Plaintiff residents in the area of South Carolina's North Tyger River had standing to sue an industrial polluter against whom various deterrent civil penalties were being pursued.

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Ashcroft v. American Civil Liberties Union cartoons image illustration picture
Ashcroft v. American Civil Liberties Union

Description:
Harmful internet content, least restrictive alternative to protect minors, suppresses a substantial amount of protected speech, unconstitutional, less restrictive alternatives exist.

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Ashcroft v. The Free Speech Coalition cartoons image illustration picture
Ashcroft v. The Free Speech Coalition

Description:
Overbreadth doctrine, speech restrictions prohibiting a substantial amount of protected speech are overbroad and unconstitutional, child pornography, obscenity.

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Dormant Commerce Clause Laws cartoons image illustration picture
Dormant Commerce Clause Laws

Description:
United Haulers Assn., Inc. v. Oneida-Herkimer Solid Waste Management Authority; Laws that favor government operations, but that treat all private businesses equally, do not violate the Commerce Clause; dormant commerce clause.

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Board of Trustees University of Alabama v. Garrett cartoons image illustration picture
Board of Trustees University of Alabama v. Garrett

Description:
States are not liable under the ada the americans with disabilities act, liable for employment discrimination, disability. eleventh amendment, equal protection, sovereign immunity.

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Brentwood Academy v. Tennessee Secondary School Athletic Association cartoons image illustration picture
Brentwood Academy v. Tennessee Secondary School Athletic Association

Description:
Private associations can be state actors, state action, close nexus, challenged action, seemingly private behavior.

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Brown v. Legal Foundation of Washington cartoons image illustration picture
Brown v. Legal Foundation of Washington

Description:
Iolta accounts are not takings requiring just compensation. Just compensation is measured by the property owner's loss rather than the government's gain.

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Bush v. Gore cartoons image illustration picture
Bush v. Gore

Description:
Constitutional standards apply to recounts. In the absence of clear standards to determine voter intent, a recount of votes cannot be permitted.

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City of Littleton Colorado v. Z.J. Gifts cartoons image illustration picture
City of Littleton Colorado v. Z.J. Gifts

Description:
Licensing scheme implicating first amendment interests must provide for "prompt judicial review" of any administrative denial of a license.

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Easley v. Cromartie cartoons image illustration picture
Easley v. Cromartie

Description:
Legislative determinations, district boundary challenges, legislatively drawn boundarie, legitimate political objectives, traditional districting principles.

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Tobacco Litigation cartoons image illustration picture
Tobacco Litigation

Description:
Philip Morris U.S.A. v. Williams; An award of punitive damages based on a desire to punish the defendant for harming persons not before the court is an unconstitutional taking of property without due process.

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Elk Grove Unified School Dist. V. Newdow cartoons image illustration picture
Elk Grove Unified School Dist. V. Newdow

Description:
Federal courts abstain from resolving state domestic relations issues, religious education, abstention, standing.

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Race Based Classifications are Subject to Strict Scrutiny cartoons image illustration picture
Race Based Classifications are Subject to Strict Scrutiny

Description:
Johnson v. California; All racially based classifications imposed by the government are subject to strict scrutiny, including classifications made by prison authorities.

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Engel v. Vitale cartoons image illustration picture
Engel v. Vitale

Description:
Organized prayers in public schools are unconstitutional, the establishment clause of the first amendment, compose official prayers, religious program carried on by the government.

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Florida Lime and Avocado Growers, Inc. v. Paul, Director, Dept. of Agriculture of California cartoons image illustration picture
Florida Lime and Avocado Growers, Inc. v. Paul, Director, Dept. of Agriculture of California

Description:
Conflict preemption requires impossible compliance with both federal and state regulations.

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Grutter v. Bollinger cartoons image illustration picture
Grutter v. Bollinger

Description:
Educational diversity is a compelling state interest, racial classifications, narrowly tailored, strict scrutiny.

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Hamdi v. Rumsfeld cartoons image illustration picture
Hamdi v. Rumsfeld

Description:
Individual due process rights must be balanced against national security, citizen detainee, classification as an enemy combatant, habeas corpus, war power.

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Regulation of Abortion cartoons image illustration picture
Regulation of Abortion

Description:
Gonzales v. Carhart; Laws that place restrictions on abortion that express respect for the life of the unborn are valid, if laws do not unduly burden a woman's right to obtain an abortion; as-applied challenge; overbreadth doctrine; void for vagueness.

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Right to Vote Allows ID Checks cartoons image illustration picture
Right to Vote Allows ID Checks

Description:
Crawford v. Marion County Election Board; Evenhanded restrictions on the right to vote that are related to voter qualifications and that protect the integrity and reliability of the electoral process are valid.

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Lawrence v. Texas cartoons image illustration picture
Lawrence v. Texas

Description:
Regulation of sexual expression violates the fundamental right of privacy, state laws criminalizing homosexual relations violate substantive due process. Sodomy.

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Locke v. Davey cartoons image illustration picture
Locke v. Davey

Description:
Public funding of religious instruction justifies scholarship restrictions, the free exercise clause, state financed religious instruction, establishment clause.

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Lorillard Tobacco Company v. Reilly cartoons image illustration picture
Lorillard Tobacco Company v. Reilly

Description:
Federal cigarette advertising regulations preempt conflicting state regulations, congress expressly preempts state or local action, conflicting state regulation must yield to federal law, supremacy clause.

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Lorillard Tobacco Company v. Reilly2 cartoons image illustration picture
Lorillard Tobacco Company v. Reilly2

Description:
Restrictions on commercial speech are not subject to strict scrutiny.

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Restraining Order Violation cartoons image illustration picture
Restraining Order Violation

Description:
Town of Castle Rock v. Gonzales; An individual who has obtained a restraining order against another does not have a constitutionally protected property interest in the enforcement when there is probable cause to believe it was violated.

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Nevada Department of Human Resources v. Hibbs cartoons image illustration picture
Nevada Department of Human Resources v. Hibbs

Description:
The FMLA; state governments are liable for money damages for interfering or restraining state employees exercise of their rights under the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993; family leave.

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Nguyen v. Immigration and Naturalization Service cartoons image illustration picture
Nguyen v. Immigration and Naturalization Service

Description:
Gender based classification, basic biological differences between men and women factor into an equal protection analysis, substantially related to achieving an important governmental objective.

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Palazzolo v. Rhode Island cartoons image illustration picture
Palazzolo v. Rhode Island

Description:
Eminent domain, inverse condemnation, just compensation, ripeness, taking, environmental concerns justify limitations on development, when a regulation denies all economically beneficial or productive use of property.

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Palmore v. Sidoti cartoons image illustration picture
Palmore v. Sidoti

Description:
Custody determinations, potential racial bias against the child, courts may not use private racial bias as a justification for official court action.

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Pierce County Washington v. Guillen cartoons image illustration picture
Pierce County Washington v. Guillen

Description:
Congress may regulate intrastate activity that affects interstate commerce, the commerce clause, instrumentalities of interstate commerce.

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Republican Party of Minnesota v. White cartoons image illustration picture
Republican Party of Minnesota v. White

Description:
Judicial impartiality is not a compelling enough interest to justify suppressing candidates views, government regulations that supress speech on the basis of its content must be narrowly tailored, first amendment.

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Sabri v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
Sabri v. United States

Description:
Spending clause, appropriate federal funds for the general welfare, facial challenge, necessary and proper clause, spending power.

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On Campus Recruiting cartoons image illustration picture
On Campus Recruiting

Description:
Rumsfeld v. Forum for Academic & Institutional Rights, Inc; Conditioning the receipt of federal funds on allowing military recruiters to have access to a college campus does not violate the First Amendment; freedom of association.

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Shaw v. Murphy cartoons image illustration picture
Shaw v. Murphy

Description:
Prison officials have discretion to restrict prisoners speech, restrictions on prisoner's communication mst be "reasonably related to legitimate penological interests."

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Campaign Contribution Limits Must Be Reasonable cartoons image illustration picture
Campaign Contribution Limits Must Be Reasonable

Description:
Randall v. Sorrell; Limits on campaign contributions may not be set so low as to magnify the advantages of incumbency and prevent a candidate from raising sufficient funds to mount an effective campaign; stare decisis.

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Silveira v. Lockyer cartoons image illustration picture
Silveira v. Lockyer

Description:
The collective rights interpretation of the second amendment is affirmed; right to maintain an effective state militia and does not establish an individual right to own or possess firearms for personal use, right to bear arms.

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Public Employees' Work Related Speech Not Protected cartoons image illustration picture
Public Employees' Work Related Speech Not Protected

Description:
Garcetti v. Ceballos; Public employees who speak as a part of their official duties are not protected from employer discipline by the First Amendment; brady material.

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Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. United States Army Corps of Engineers cartoons image illustration picture
Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. United States Army Corps of Engineers

Description:
Administrative action conflicting with clear statutory language is not entitled to deference, administrative authority; commerce clause.

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Accomodating Religious Practices Is not Establishment cartoons image illustration picture
Accomodating Religious Practices Is not Establishment

Description:
Cutter v. Wilkinson; The Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act is a permissible accommodation of religion that does not violate the Establishment Clause; free exercise clause.

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State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company v. Campbell cartoons image illustration picture
State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company v. Campbell

Description:
Punitive damages awards must be weighed against the compensatory damages; reprehensibility of the defendant's conduct, disparity between actual harm caused and amount of the punitive damages awarded. bad faith, supersedeas bond.

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Tennessee v. Lane cartoons image illustration picture
Tennessee v. Lane

Description:
Title ii of the ada is a valid exercise, abrogate the state's eleventh amendment immunity, congress must have unequivocally expressed its intent; americans with disabilities act.

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Thomas and Windy City Hemp Development Board v. Chicago Park District cartoons image illustration picture
Thomas and Windy City Hemp Development Board v. Chicago Park District

Description:
Content based restriction, prior restraint, requiring permits for all public assemblies does not infringe on the freedom of speech, content neutral regulation of access to public property, provides adequate standards.

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Compelling State Interest Test cartoons image illustration picture
Compelling State Interest Test

Description:
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School Dist. The Fourteenth Amendment prevents states from according differential treatment to American children on the basis of their race; compelling state interest test; Equal Protection Clause.

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United States v. American Library Association, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. American Library Association, Inc.

Description:
Libraries do not violate the first amendment by blocking pornography, censor.

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United States v. Seeger cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Seeger

Description:
Religion, the test of whether a belief "in a relation to a supreme being", sincere and meaningful, occupies a place in the life of its possessor parallel to that filled by the orthodox belief in god.

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Vieth v. Jubelirer cartoons image illustration picture
Vieth v. Jubelirer

Description:
Political gerrymandering claims are not justiciable, no judicially discoverable and manageable standards for resolving the issues presented, nonjusticiable political question, justiciability.

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Batson Challenge cartoons image illustration picture
Batson Challenge

Description:
Hernandez v. New York; A policy of striking all who speak a given language, without regard to the particular circumstances of the trial or the individual responses of the jurors, may be a pretext for racial discrimination; peremptory challenge.

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Virginia v. Black cartoons image illustration picture
Virginia v. Black

Description:
Burning a cross, violates the first amendment, state statute banning cross burning with the intent to intimidate another person, free expression, prima facie evidence.

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Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc. v. Village of Stratton cartoons image illustration picture
Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc. v. Village of Stratton

Description:
Freedom of speech includes the right to disseminate religious views at private residences; requiring a permit, door to door activities on private residential property.

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Same-Sex Gay Marriage Legal In California cartoons image illustration picture
Same-Sex Gay Marriage Legal In California

Description:
In re Marriage Cases; gay rights; impermissible to treat gay individuals and same-sex couples any differently than heterosexual individuals and opposite-sex couples; compelling-state-interest-test; strict scrutiny; suspect class.

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Freedom of Expression cartoons image illustration picture
Freedom of Expression

Description:
Virginia v. Black; A state statute banning cross burning with the intent to intimidate another person is not unconstitutional, but the establishment of criminal intent from the prohibited act itself violates the First Amendment; content-based restriction.

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Soft Money Contribution Cannot Circumvent Campaign Contribution Limits cartoons image illustration picture
Soft Money Contribution Cannot Circumvent Campaign Contribution Limits

Description:
McConnell v. Federal Election Commission; Congress has a legitimate interest in curbing undue influence on an officeholder's judgment, as well as the appearance of such influence; quid pro quo.

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Whitman v. American Trucking Association, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
Whitman v. American Trucking Association, Inc.

Description:
Delegation doctrine; executive action involves a certain degree of administrative discretion; intelligible principle; legislative power; separation of powers.

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Gratz v. Bollinger cartoons image illustration picture
Gratz v. Bollinger

Description:
A point system emphasizing minority status violates equal protection; university admissions policies; take race into account, affirmative action; reverse discrimination.

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Establishment Clause v. Free Exercise Clause cartoons image illustration picture
Establishment Clause v. Free Exercise Clause

Description:
Locke v. Davey; Although the Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause are often in tension, there is room for play in the joints between them.

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Rogers v. Lodge cartoons image illustration picture
Rogers v. Lodge

Description:
Discriminatory at large voting schemes are unconstitutional; multimember districts violate the fourteenth amendment; motivated by a discriminatory purpose.

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FMLA Is Legal cartoons image illustration picture
FMLA Is Legal

Description:
Nevada Department of Natural Resources v. Hibbs;State governments are liable for money damages for interfering or restraining state employees' exercise of their rights under the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993.

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McCleskey v. Kemp cartoons image illustration picture
McCleskey v. Kemp

Description:
forthcoming

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Mobile v. Bolden cartoons image illustration picture
Mobile v. Bolden

Description:
At-large system violate Amendments Fourteen or Fifteen or the Voting Rights Act on if there is discriminatory intent.

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Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corporation cartoons image illustration picture
Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corporation

Description:
Disproportionate impact; equal protection violation; proof of intentional or purposeful discrimination; disparate impact; invidious discrimination; zoning.

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Hill v. Colorado cartoons image illustration picture
Hill v. Colorado

Description:
Confrontational speakers; unwilling recipients; a reasonable restriction on the time, place, and manner of protected speech does not violate the first amendment; content-based restriction; forum.

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Standing Requirements for Environmental Claims cartoons image illustration picture
Standing Requirements for Environmental Claims

Description:
Massachusetts v. EPA; For standing, a litigant must ordinarily demonstrate it has suffered concrete and particularized injury that is either actual or imminent, fairly traceable to defendant, and a likelihood that a favorable decision would redress injury

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Enemy Combatant Rights to Habeas Corpus cartoons image illustration picture
Enemy Combatant Rights to Habeas Corpus

Description:
Boumediene v. Bush; In cases of undue delay, federal courts may entertain an enemy combatant's habeas corpus petition even before the Combatant Status Review Tribunal has had a chance to review his status.

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Redressability And Immediacy cartoons image illustration picture
Redressability And Immediacy

Description:
Massachusetts v. EPA; Standing; A litigant Congress has accorded a procedural right to protect his concrete interests (right to challenge agency action unlawfully withheld) can assert that right without meeting standards for redressability and immediacy.

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Corporations' Political Speech is Protected cartoons image illustration picture
Corporations' Political Speech is Protected

Description:
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission; The government may not suppress political speech on the basis of the speaker's corporate identity.

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Martin v. Hunter's Lessee cartoons image illustration picture
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee

Description:
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee, the Unites States Supreme Court is the singular revising authority to control discordant state court judgments and harmonize them.

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Desegratation Laws cartoons image illustration picture
Desegratation Laws

Description:
Cooper v. Aaron.

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Political Question Doctrine cartoons image illustration picture
Political Question Doctrine

Description:
Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency, states can sue over global warming, case or controversy requirement. Environmental attorney. Damage to the environment.

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Right To Keep and Bear Arms cartoons image illustration picture
Right To Keep and Bear Arms

Description:
McDonald v. City of Chicago Individual self defense is the central component of the Second Amendment right to keep and bear arms and is deeply rooted in the nation's history and tradition. Heller analysis.

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State Imposed Term Limits cartoons image illustration picture
State Imposed Term Limits

Description:
U.S. Term Limits v. Thornton. State term limits for its federal representative is contrary to the democratic maxim that the people should choose whom they please; is inconsistent with the Framers' vision of a uniform national legislature.

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Commerce Power cartoons image illustration picture
Commerce Power

Description:
Gibbons v. Ogden.

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Commerce Clause cartoons image illustration picture
Commerce Clause

Description:
Hammer v. Dagenhart [The Child Labor Case], prohibiting the use of the facilities of interstate commerce to effect an intended evil.

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The Child Labor Case cartoons image illustration picture
The Child Labor Case

Description:
Hammer v. Dagenhart [The Child Labor Case]. The commerce power includes the power to regulate by prohibiting the use of the facilities of interstate commerce to effect an intended evil, but it is not a means to prohibit the evil itself.

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Medical Marijuana cartoons image illustration picture
Medical Marijuana

Description:
Gonzales v. Raich, medicinal marijuana violates federal drug laws under the commerce clause powers.

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Dormant Commerce Clause cartoons image illustration picture
Dormant Commerce Clause

Description:
C&A Carbone, Inc. v. Clarkstown, ordinance that discriminates against interstate commerce in favor of local business or investment is per se invalid, unless municipality demonstrates it has no other means to advance a legitimate local interest.

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Commerce Clause Can Reach Intrastate Labor Practices cartoons image illustration picture
Commerce Clause Can Reach Intrastate Labor Practices

Description:
NLRB v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation. Congressional power to protect interstate commerce is not limited to transactions which are an essential part of the flow of interstate commerce; can use against activities that merely burden or obstruct.

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United Haulers Ass'n v. Oneida-Herkimer Solid Waste Management Authority cartoons image illustration picture
United Haulers Ass'n v. Oneida-Herkimer Solid Waste Management Authority

Description:
United Haulers Ass'n v. Oneida-Herkimer Solid Waste Management Authority, limits C&A Carbone, Inc v. Clarkstown holding regarding waste management activities by governments.

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Barriers to Interstate Trade Violate the Commerce Clause cartoons image illustration picture
Barriers to Interstate Trade Violate the Commerce Clause

Description:
Baldwin v. G.A.F. Seelig, Inc., Barriers to commercial traffic between states, direct or indirect, violate the Commerce Clause when purpose and effect of such barriers is to suppress or mitigate the consequences of competition between states.

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Hamdan v. Rumsfeld cartoons image illustration picture
Hamdan v. Rumsfeld

Description:
Accused terrorists hearings before regular tribunals, military commissions.

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Tax Statutes cartoons image illustration picture
Tax Statutes

Description:
Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Co. (The Child Labor Tax Case). The presence of extensive penalizing features, indicating a primary purpose to regulate, may render a tax statute constitutionally invalid.

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Kelo v. City of New London cartoons image illustration picture
Kelo v. City of New London

Description:
Eminent domain, just compensation, public purpose, takings of private property for use by other private citizens pursuant to a carefully considered economic development plan intended for a public purpose are valid under the Fifth Amendment.

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Partial Birth Abortion Ban cartoons image illustration picture
Partial Birth Abortion Ban

Description:
Gonzales v. Carhart, woman's health, late term abortions.

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The Taxing Power cartoons image illustration picture
The Taxing Power

Description:
United States v. Butler. The Taxing Power may not be used to purchase compliance with a regulation that Congress has no power to enact.

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Racial Balancing Strict Scrutiny cartoons image illustration picture
Racial Balancing Strict Scrutiny

Description:
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District, all racially based state action must pass strict scrutiny, even if the asserted purpose is racial balancing.

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The Spending Power cartoons image illustration picture
The Spending Power

Description:
South Dakota v. Dole. The constitutional limitations on Congress when exercising its spending power are less than the limits on its authority to regulate directly such as through the Commerce Power.

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Federal Election Commission v. Wisconsin Right to Life cartoons image illustration picture
Federal Election Commission v. Wisconsin Right to Life

Description:
Federal Election Commission v. Wisconsin Right to Life, Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act, corporations may sponsor issue oriented ads advertisements prior to an election.

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Ten Commandments Displays Establishment Clause cartoons image illustration picture
Ten Commandments Displays Establishment Clause

Description:
McCreary County v. ACLU of Kentucky, ten commandments displays in county courthouses violate the first amendment establishment clause.

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War Powers cartoons image illustration picture
War Powers

Description:
Woods v. Cloyd W. Miller Co. Congress' War Power may continue after hostilities have ended in order to remedy problems brought on by the conflict.

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Ten Commandments on State Capitol Grounds cartoons image illustration picture
Ten Commandments on State Capitol Grounds

Description:
Van Orden v. Perry, The mere fact that an object has some religious significance does not automatically mean that it runs afoul of the Establishment Clause.

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The Selective Exclusiveness Test cartoons image illustration picture
The Selective Exclusiveness Test

Description:
Cooley v. Board of Wardens. The Commerce Clause does not block state regulation of local subject matter, but blocks any state commercial regualtion dealign with a national subject matter.

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Constitutional Interpretation cartoons image illustration picture
Constitutional Interpretation

Description:
District of Columbia v. Heller; Words and phrases in the Constitution are to be interpreted according to their normal and ordinary meanings as understood when the provision in question was adopted; second amendment.

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Taxpayer Standing to Challenge Executive Branch Actions cartoons image illustration picture
Taxpayer Standing to Challenge Executive Branch Actions

Description:
Hein v. Freedom from Religion Foundation; Taxpayers have standing to bring Establishment Clause challenges to a federal expenditure only if that expenditure is made pursuant to an explicit congressional authorization; establishment clause.

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Congressional Regulation of Intrastate Commerce cartoons image illustration picture
Congressional Regulation of Intrastate Commerce

Description:
Gonzales v. Raich; Medical marijuana; Prescription marijuana; THC; Congress may regulate intrastate activity if there is a rational basis for concluding that the activity may have a substantial effect on interstate commerce; necessary and proper clause.

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A State May Be Sued for Some ADA Violations cartoons image illustration picture
A State May Be Sued for Some ADA Violations

Description:
United States v. Georgia; The enforcement power in the Fourteenth Amendment gives Congress the power to create a private right of action for violations of the Amendment; Americans with Disabilities Act; sovereign immunity.

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Suspension Clause cartoons image illustration picture
Suspension Clause

Description:
Boumediene v. Bush; If the privilege of habeas corpus is to be denied, Congress must act in accordance with the requirements of the Suspension Clause; ultra vires.

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Stream Of Interstate Commerce cartoons image illustration picture
Stream Of Interstate Commerce

Description:
Philadelphia v. New Jersey. The Commerce clause protects other States from efforts by one State to isolate itself in the stream of interstate commerce from a problem shared by all, such as garbage.

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Dormant Commerce Clause Laws cartoons image illustration picture
Dormant Commerce Clause Laws

Description:
United Haulers Assn., Inc. v. Oneida-Herkimer Solid Waste Management Authority; Laws that favor government operations, but that treat all private businesses equally, do not violate the Commerce Clause; dormant commerce clause.

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Least Restrictive Means Test cartoons image illustration picture
Least Restrictive Means Test

Description:
Dean Milk co. v. Madison. A health and safety ordinance that discriminates against interstate commerce will be invalid if reasonable and adequate non-discriminatory alternatives are available.

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Tobacco Litigation cartoons image illustration picture
Tobacco Litigation

Description:
Philip Morris U.S.A. v. Williams; An award of punitive damages based on a desire to punish the defendant for harming persons not before the court is an unconstitutional taking of property without due process.

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Race Based Classifications are Subject to Strict Scrutiny cartoons image illustration picture
Race Based Classifications are Subject to Strict Scrutiny

Description:
Johnson v. California; All racially based classifications imposed by the government are subject to strict scrutiny, including classifications made by prison authorities.

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Regulation of Abortion cartoons image illustration picture
Regulation of Abortion

Description:
Gonzales v. Carhart; Laws that place restrictions on abortion that express respect for the life of the unborn are valid, if laws do not unduly burden a woman's right to obtain an abortion; as-applied challenge; overbreadth doctrine; void for vagueness.

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Right to Vote Allows ID Checks cartoons image illustration picture
Right to Vote Allows ID Checks

Description:
Crawford v. Marion County Election Board; Evenhanded restrictions on the right to vote that are related to voter qualifications and that protect the integrity and reliability of the electoral process are valid.

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Restraining Order Violation cartoons image illustration picture
Restraining Order Violation

Description:
Town of Castle Rock v. Gonzales; An individual who has obtained a restraining order against another does not have a constitutionally protected property interest in the enforcement when there is probable cause to believe it was violated.

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On Campus Recruiting cartoons image illustration picture
On Campus Recruiting

Description:
Rumsfeld v. Forum for Academic & Institutional Rights, Inc; Conditioning the receipt of federal funds on allowing military recruiters to have access to a college campus does not violate the First Amendment; freedom of association.

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Market Participant Doctrine cartoons image illustration picture
Market Participant Doctrine

Description:
South Central Timber Development, Inc. v. Wuunicke. Although state owned businesses may favor resident purchasers, they may not attach conditions to the sale of products that will burden interstate commerce.

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Campaign Contribution Limits Must Be Reasonable cartoons image illustration picture
Campaign Contribution Limits Must Be Reasonable

Description:
Randall v. Sorrell; Limits on campaign contributions may not be set so low as to magnify the advantages of incumbency and prevent a candidate from raising sufficient funds to mount an effective campaign; stare decisis.

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Least Discriminatory Means cartoons image illustration picture