Share This Page
Cartoons, -> Constitutional Law Cartoons
Election Law cartoons image illustration picture
Election Law

Description:
Voting cartoon; electronic voting; Bush v. Gore; contested election; election cartoons; election lawsuit cartoon; voting case; hanging chad; disputed election count; judges vote.

Select Usage (details) :



Bowers v. Hardwick cartoons image illustration picture
Bowers v. Hardwick

Description:
Fundamental right to engage in sodomy, homosexual conduct.

Select Usage (details) :



Detain Aliens cartoons image illustration picture
Detain Aliens

Description:
Demore v. Kim; aliens may be detained pending removal deportation.

Select Usage (details) :



Brown v. Board of Education cartoons image illustration picture
Brown v. Board of Education

Description:
Separate but equal doctrine, public education, violates the fourteenth amendment, tangibly equal resources and facilities, segregation.

Select Usage (details) :



Bush v. Gore cartoons image illustration picture
Bush v. Gore

Description:
Constitutional standards apply to recounts, clear standards, determine voter intent, recount of votes.

Select Usage (details) :



Griswold v. Connecticut cartoons image illustration picture
Griswold v. Connecticut

Description:
Right to privacy, marital relationship, contraceptives, penumbra, zone of privacy.

Select Usage (details) :



Hamdi v. Rumsfeld cartoons image illustration picture
Hamdi v. Rumsfeld

Description:
Citizen "enemy combatant" has due process right to contest his detention, non detention act.

Select Usage (details) :



Lawrence v. Texas cartoons image illustration picture
Lawrence v. Texas

Description:
Texas sodomy statute law, private consensual sexual conduct.

Select Usage (details) :



Marbury v. Madison cartoons image illustration picture
Marbury v. Madison

Description:
Judiciary act, power to declare unconstitutional, appellate jurisdiction, mandamus, original jurisdiction.

Select Usage (details) :



Plessy v. Ferguson cartoons image illustration picture
Plessy v. Ferguson

Description:
Separate but equal accommodations, racial inferiority, the fourteenth amendment, separate but equal doctrine.

Select Usage (details) :



San Antonio v. Rodriguez cartoons image illustration picture
San Antonio v. Rodriguez

Description:
Appropriations among school districts, comparative wealth, education is not a fundamental right.

Select Usage (details) :



Shelley v. Kraemer cartoons image illustration picture
Shelley v. Kraemer

Description:
Judicial enforcement of racially restrictive covenants constitutes state action, fourteenth amendment.

Select Usage (details) :



Texas v. Johnson cartoons image illustration picture
Texas v. Johnson

Description:
Burning the American flag, freedom of expression, first amendment, symbolic speech.

Select Usage (details) :



Washington v. Glucksberg cartoons image illustration picture
Washington v. Glucksberg

Description:
Laws prohibiting physician assisted suicide, terminally ill, mentally competent, patients in extreme pain, right to die.

Select Usage (details) :



Gonzales v. Raich cartoons image illustration picture
Gonzales v. Raich

Description:
Medical marijuana, cancer, terminally ill, prescription morphine.

Select Usage (details) :



Kelo v. New London cartoons image illustration picture
Kelo v. New London

Description:
Fifth amendment, eminent domain just compensation, public purpose, takings of private property, private economic development.

Select Usage (details) :



Cooper v. Aaron cartoons image illustration picture
Cooper v. Aaron

Description:
School desegregation, Brown v. Board of Education, supremacy clause.

Select Usage (details) :



Loving v. Virginia cartoons image illustration picture
Loving v. Virginia

Description:
Interracial marriage, equal protection.

Select Usage (details) :



Yick Wo v. Hopkins cartoons image illustration picture
Yick Wo v. Hopkins

Description:
Equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment prohibits racial discrimination.

Select Usage (details) :



Washington v. Davis cartoons image illustration picture
Washington v. Davis

Description:
Disparate impact; disparate treatment.

Select Usage (details) :



Moose Lodge No. 107 v. Irvis cartoons image illustration picture
Moose Lodge No. 107 v. Irvis

Description:
Private club; state action.

Select Usage (details) :



Edmonson v. Leesville Concrete Company, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
Edmonson v. Leesville Concrete Company, Inc.

Description:
Peremptory challenge; Batson challenge, state action, voir dire, exlude black jurors.

Select Usage (details) :



City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Company cartoons image illustration picture
City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Company

Description:
Racial quota; strict scrutiny, remedial plan.

Select Usage (details) :



Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena cartoons image illustration picture
Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena

Description:
Affirmative action; strict scrutiny, race based compensation incentive, state actor.

Select Usage (details) :



Shaw v. Reno cartoons image illustration picture
Shaw v. Reno

Description:
Gerrymandering; reapportionment; strict scrutiny; voting rights act, odd shaped voting districts.

Select Usage (details) :



Railway Express Agency, Inc. v. New York cartoons image illustration picture
Railway Express Agency, Inc. v. New York

Description:
Equal protection; rational basis test.

Select Usage (details) :



Frontiero v. Richardson cartoons image illustration picture
Frontiero v. Richardson

Description:
Sex suspect classification, similarly situated members of different sexes.

Select Usage (details) :



Craig v. Boren cartoons image illustration picture
Craig v. Boren

Description:
Intermediate scrutiny, gender based classifications.

Select Usage (details) :



United States v. Virginia cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Virginia

Description:
Public university gender classification requires exceedingly persuasive justification.

Select Usage (details) :



City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center cartoons image illustration picture
City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center

Description:
Quasi suspect classification.

Select Usage (details) :



Romer v. Evans cartoons image illustration picture
Romer v. Evans

Description:
Equal protection clause; homosexual rights, state action.

Select Usage (details) :



Baehr v. Lewin cartoons image illustration picture
Baehr v. Lewin

Description:
Prohibition on same sex marriage; gay rights.

Select Usage (details) :



Palko v. Connecticut cartoons image illustration picture
Palko v. Connecticut

Description:
Fifth amendment; double jeapordy clause; concept of ordered liberty.

Select Usage (details) :



Adamson v. California cartoons image illustration picture
Adamson v. California

Description:
Right against self incrimination.

Select Usage (details) :



Skinner v. Oklahoma ex rel. Williamson cartoons image illustration picture
Skinner v. Oklahoma ex rel. Williamson

Description:
Forced sterilization violate due process.

Select Usage (details) :



Lochner v. New York cartoons image illustration picture
Lochner v. New York

Description:
Police power. The Fourteenth Amendment guarantees an individual the right to make a contract affecting his or her personal business.

Select Usage (details) :



Penn Central Transportation Company v. City of New York cartoons image illustration picture
Penn Central Transportation Company v. City of New York

Description:
Eminent domain clause; takings clause, landmark, payment of just compensation.

Select Usage (details) :



Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council cartoons image illustration picture
Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council

Description:
Eminent domain clause; takings clause, nuisance, regulation, payment of just compensation.

Select Usage (details) :



Tahoe Sierra Preservation Council, Inc. v. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency cartoons image illustration picture
Tahoe Sierra Preservation Council, Inc. v. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency

Description:
Moratorium on develepment as eminent domain clause; takings clause, payment of just compensation.

Select Usage (details) :



Reynolds v. Sims cartoons image illustration picture
Reynolds v. Sims

Description:
Reapportionment; dilution of representation, equal protection clause.

Select Usage (details) :



Edgewood Independent School District v. Kirby cartoons image illustration picture
Edgewood Independent School District v. Kirby

Description:
Public school expenditures among districts must be equal.

Select Usage (details) :



Saenz v. Roe cartoons image illustration picture
Saenz v. Roe

Description:
Privileges and immunities clause; welfare benefits, length of residency.

Select Usage (details) :



Meyer v. Nebraska cartoons image illustration picture
Meyer v. Nebraska

Description:
Liberty interests, teach english only.

Select Usage (details) :



Poe v. Ullman cartoons image illustration picture
Poe v. Ullman

Description:
Actual controversy, actual dispute, declaratory judgment, nullification, per legem terrae, ripeness.

Select Usage (details) :



Roe v. Wade cartoons image illustration picture
Roe v. Wade

Description:
Complete ban on abortions violates the right to privacy, state, abortion laws, viable zone of privacy.

Select Usage (details) :



Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey cartoons image illustration picture
Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey

Description:
Restrictions on abortions cannot unduly interfere with a woman's right to choose, judicial bypass, substantive due process, undue burden test.

Select Usage (details) :



Board of Regents v. Roth cartoons image illustration picture
Board of Regents v. Roth

Description:
Due process, contract rights, property interests, procedural due process.

Select Usage (details) :



Mathews v. Eldridge cartoons image illustration picture
Mathews v. Eldridge

Description:
A hearing, termination of social security disability benefits, terminating disability benefits; administrative procedures, due process, entitlement.

Select Usage (details) :



R.A.V. v. City of Saint Paul cartoons image illustration picture
R.A.V. v. City of Saint Paul

Description:
Fighting words may be prohibited, ordinance, target race, color, creed, religion, or gender violates the first amendment, content based restriction, defamation, fighting words, libel.

Select Usage (details) :



Abrams v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
Abrams v. United States

Description:
The first amendment does not protect speech aimed at influencing the american public against the war the government is trying to wage.

Select Usage (details) :



Brandenburg v. Ohio cartoons image illustration picture
Brandenburg v. Ohio

Description:
Speech advocating social change is protected by the first amendment, speech that advocates violence but does not incite immediate use of force or violence.

Select Usage (details) :



New York Times Company v. Sullivan cartoons image illustration picture
New York Times Company v. Sullivan

Description:
A public official may receive damages only for malicious libel, showing of actual malice, defamation.

Select Usage (details) :



Bartnicki v. Vopper cartoons image illustration picture
Bartnicki v. Vopper

Description:
Illegally obtained information, matter of public significance, chilling effect, intervenor.

Select Usage (details) :



Miller v. California cartoons image illustration picture
Miller v. California

Description:
Distribution of obscene material, the first amendment, sexually explicit material, prurient interest, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value, obscenity, pornography.

Select Usage (details) :



City of Renton v. Playtime Theaters, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
City of Renton v. Playtime Theaters, Inc.

Description:
Zoning ordinances may target secondary effects of speech without offending the first amendment, free speech, content based restriction.

Select Usage (details) :



Cohen v. California cartoons image illustration picture
Cohen v. California

Description:
Vulgar speech does not disturb the peace, offensive speech.

Select Usage (details) :



Virginia State Board of Pharmacy v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council cartoons image illustration picture
Virginia State Board of Pharmacy v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council

Description:
The first amendment protects some commercial speech, flow of commercial information.

Select Usage (details) :



Buckley v. Valeo cartoons image illustration picture
Buckley v. Valeo

Description:
Contributions to political campaigns are protected as speech, limits on campaign contributions, limits on campaign expenditures, the first amendment.

Select Usage (details) :



United States v. Grace cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Grace

Description:
The first amendment prohibits denying access to a traditional public forum, sidewalks, forums for public expression, designated public forum.

Select Usage (details) :



Ward v. Rock Against Racism cartoons image illustration picture
Ward v. Rock Against Racism

Description:
Noise ordinances advance a substantial government goal, limit speech, protect a legitimate government interest, content based, foreclose alternate avenues of communication; least restrictive intrusive.

Select Usage (details) :



International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Inc. v. Lee cartoons image illustration picture
International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Inc. v. Lee

Description:
An airport terminal is not a public forum, regulations prohibiting solicitation for donations and religious leafleting.

Select Usage (details) :



Rust v. Sullivan cartoons image illustration picture
Rust v. Sullivan

Description:
Funding, abortion counseling programs, violate the first amendment.

Select Usage (details) :



Legal Services Corporation v. Valazquez cartoons image illustration picture
Legal Services Corporation v. Valazquez

Description:
Federal grant money, challenge welfare laws, the first amendment, legal assistance, welfare recipients.

Select Usage (details) :



Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier cartoons image illustration picture
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier

Description:
Schools may exercise editorial control over student speech in school sponsored activities, the first amendment.

Select Usage (details) :



Madsen v. Womens Health Center, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
Madsen v. Womens Health Center, Inc.

Description:
Injunction, the first amendment protection, narrowly tailored, prior restraint.

Select Usage (details) :



Board of Airport Commissioners v. Jews for Jesus, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
Board of Airport Commissioners v. Jews for Jesus, Inc.

Description:
Overbreadth doctrine, a resolution that prohibits all conduct or speech protected by the first amendment is unconstitutional.

Select Usage (details) :



Board of Directors of Rotary International v. Rotary Club of Duarte cartoons image illustration picture
Board of Directors of Rotary International v. Rotary Club of Duarte

Description:
Private association, denial of membership to women, unruh act to the california rotary clubs, the right of expressive association, the first amendment.

Select Usage (details) :



Employment Division Department of Human Resources v. Smith cartoons image illustration picture
Employment Division Department of Human Resources v. Smith

Description:
Free exercise clause, unemployment benefits, peyote, unemployment compensation, state criminal statute, religious ritual.

Select Usage (details) :



Everson v. Board of Education cartoons image illustration picture
Everson v. Board of Education

Description:
Government reimbursement to facilitate transportation of students to school does not violate the establishment clause.

Select Usage (details) :



Lee v. Weisman cartoons image illustration picture
Lee v. Weisman

Description:
Prayers at commencement exercises violate the first amendment, state endorsement of religion.

Select Usage (details) :



Zelman v. Simmons Harris cartoons image illustration picture
Zelman v. Simmons Harris

Description:
School voucher program, religious affiliated schools, vouchers to parents, not violate the establishment clause of the first amendment.

Select Usage (details) :



McCulloch v. Maryland cartoons image illustration picture
McCulloch v. Maryland

Description:
Congress power to enact legislation to carry out its powers, constitutional authority, pass legislation, establish a national bank that is exempt from state taxing powers. necessary and proper clause.

Select Usage (details) :



Gibbons v. Ogden cartoons image illustration picture
Gibbons v. Ogden

Description:
The constitution's grant of authority to regulate commerce among the states must necessarily include the ability to regulate navigation; commerce clause; dormant commerce clause; supremacy clause.

Select Usage (details) :



United States v. Darby cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Darby

Description:
Intrastate components of interstate commerce fall within the commerce clause, ability to regulate certain intrastate activities.

Select Usage (details) :



Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States

Description:
Racial discrimination has an economic impact and so may be regulated by congress under the commerce clause.

Select Usage (details) :



United States v. Lopez cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Lopez

Description:
Enact school gun possession laws, connected with interstate commerce, congressional interference in a purely local concern.

Select Usage (details) :



The Civil Rights Cases cartoons image illustration picture
The Civil Rights Cases

Description:
The civil rights act was intended to protect the legal and civil rights of all citizens. civil rights civil rights act.

Select Usage (details) :



Jones v. Alfred H Meyer Company cartoons image illustration picture
Jones v. Alfred H Meyer Company

Description:
Congress has the authority to prohibit private discrimination in order to give full effect to the provisions of the thirteenth amendment.

Select Usage (details) :



Katzenbach v. Morgan cartoons image illustration picture
Katzenbach v. Morgan

Description:
State voting requirements cannot conflict with federal provisions, federal voting rights act. supremacy clause.

Select Usage (details) :



City of Rome v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
City of Rome v. United States

Description:
Congress has the right to prohibit unintended effects of practices that do not alone violate the 15th amendment, prohibit voting practices, discriminatory purpose, discriminatory effect when applied.

Select Usage (details) :



City of Boerne v. Flores cartoons image illustration picture
City of Boerne v. Flores

Description:
The religious freedom restoration act (rfra) exceeds congress' power under the fourteenth amendment and violates principles necessary to maintain separation of powers and a federal state balance.

Select Usage (details) :



United States v. Morrison cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Morrison

Description:
Congress may not regulate non economic, violent criminal conduct based solely on an assertion that the conduct has a negative impact on interstate commerce.

Select Usage (details) :



South Dakota v. Dole cartoons image illustration picture
South Dakota v. Dole

Description:
Congress may condition payments of federal funds to states on their passage of laws restricting alcohol sales, spending power, twenty first amendment.

Select Usage (details) :



Missouri v. Holland cartoons image illustration picture
Missouri v. Holland

Description:
Treaties, superior to state laws, federal laws and regulations enacted pursuant to a validly entered treaty take precedence over the laws of the individual states.

Select Usage (details) :



Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority cartoons image illustration picture
Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority

Description:
State and local government employers are subject to the FLSA, application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to local government employers does not violate the tenth amendment.

Select Usage (details) :



New York v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
New York v. United States

Description:
Congress cannot impose a regulatory process on the individual states in violation of the tenth amendment, forcing individual states to comply with nationwide regulations.

Select Usage (details) :



Printz v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
Printz v. United States

Description:
Congress may not compel state and local law enforcement officers to administer the brady act, federal law that requires a particular action by a state or local officer.

Select Usage (details) :



Gibbons v. Ogden cartoons image illustration picture
Gibbons v. Ogden

Description:
States may not exercise regulatory power delegated to congress simply because congress has failed to act, absence of congressional action to regulate commerce.

Select Usage (details) :



City of Philadelphia v. New Jersey cartoons image illustration picture
City of Philadelphia v. New Jersey

Description:
Restrict the flow of waste, landfills, states may not regulate commercial activity within their borders in such a way as to favor state interests. Dormant commerce clause.

Select Usage (details) :



Kassel v. Consolidated Freightways Corporation cartoons image illustration picture
Kassel v. Consolidated Freightways Corporation

Description:
State regulations having a direct impact on interstate commerce must be justifiable as a safety concern.

Select Usage (details) :



United Building and Construction Trades Council of Camden County v. Mayor and Council of Camden cartoons image illustration picture
United Building and Construction Trades Council of Camden County v. Mayor and Council of Camden

Description:
Municipal ordinances that discriminate based on local residency may violate the privileges and immunities clause, municipal residency requirements have interstate effect.

Select Usage (details) :



Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer The Steel Seizure Case cartoons image illustration picture
Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer The Steel Seizure Case

Description:
Presidential authority must be explicit, president, specific constitutional provisions, there is no inherent executive authority, executive order.

Select Usage (details) :



United States v. Nixon cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Nixon

Description:
Executive privilege does not shield the president from the judicial process, recognized claim of privilege, due process considerations, criminal trial, executive immunity, in camera inspection, speech or debate clause.

Select Usage (details) :



Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha cartoons image illustration picture
Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha

Description:
A grant of executive authority cannot be overridden by a congressional veto, once congress has acted to vest authority in an administrative agency, it cannot act to overturn the action of that agency in the absence of further legislation.

Select Usage (details) :



Clinton v. New York cartoons image illustration picture
Clinton v. New York

Description:
The line item veto violates the constitution, line item veto act, virtual amendment of congressional acts by the president, delegation doctrine.

Select Usage (details) :



Bowsher v. Synar cartoons image illustration picture
Bowsher v. Synar

Description:
Sequestration, budget appropriations cannot be delegated to a legislator the delegation of executive functions to a legislative administrator violates the constitutionally imposed doctrine of separation of powers.

Select Usage (details) :



Morrison v. Olson cartoons image illustration picture
Morrison v. Olson

Description:
The appointments clause of the constitution permits congress to delegate to the courts the ability to appoint special prosecutors who are inferior officers. Independent counsel.

Select Usage (details) :



Ex Parte McCardle cartoons image illustration picture
Ex Parte McCardle

Description:
Congress has constitutional authority to regulate the appellate jurisdiction of the federal courts and the supreme court. Repeal.

Select Usage (details) :



Baker v. Carr cartoons image illustration picture
Baker v. Carr

Description:
The guaranty clause of the constitution, judicially resolving an otherwise political question, political right; the equal protection clause, judicial question.

Select Usage (details) :



Nixon v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
Nixon v. United States

Description:
Nonjusticiable, impeachment of a federal judge, U.S. Senate, sole authority; judicial review, judicial participation.

Select Usage (details) :



Allen v. Wright cartoons image illustration picture
Allen v. Wright

Description:
Case or controversy requirement, cognizable controversy, redress, confer standing, satisfy the federal standing requirement, present injury.

Select Usage (details) :



Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife cartoons image illustration picture
Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife

Description:
Injury in fact and redressability must be established even under a federal statute conferring a private cause of action, private right of action, standing, personal injury, public, injury in fact. Injury to the environment.

Select Usage (details) :



Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Enviornmental Services TOC, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Enviornmental Services TOC, Inc.

Description:
Plaintiff residents in the area of South Carolina's North Tyger River had standing to sue an industrial polluter against whom various deterrent civil penalties were being pursued.

Select Usage (details) :



Ashcroft v. American Civil Liberties Union cartoons image illustration picture
Ashcroft v. American Civil Liberties Union

Description:
Harmful internet content, least restrictive alternative to protect minors, suppresses a substantial amount of protected speech, unconstitutional, less restrictive alternatives exist.

Select Usage (details) :



Ashcroft v. The Free Speech Coalition cartoons image illustration picture
Ashcroft v. The Free Speech Coalition

Description:
Overbreadth doctrine, speech restrictions prohibiting a substantial amount of protected speech are overbroad and unconstitutional, child pornography, obscenity.

Select Usage (details) :



Board of Trustees University of Alabama v. Garrett cartoons image illustration picture
Board of Trustees University of Alabama v. Garrett

Description:
States are not liable under the ada the americans with disabilities act, liable for employment discrimination, disability. eleventh amendment, equal protection, sovereign immunity.

Select Usage (details) :



Brentwood Academy v. Tennessee Secondary School Athletic Association cartoons image illustration picture
Brentwood Academy v. Tennessee Secondary School Athletic Association

Description:
Private associations can be state actors, state action, close nexus, challenged action, seemingly private behavior.

Select Usage (details) :



Brown v. Legal Foundation of Washington cartoons image illustration picture
Brown v. Legal Foundation of Washington

Description:
Iolta accounts are not takings requiring just compensation. Just compensation is measured by the property owner's loss rather than the government's gain.

Select Usage (details) :



Bush v. Gore cartoons image illustration picture
Bush v. Gore

Description:
Constitutional standards apply to recounts. In the absence of clear standards to determine voter intent, a recount of votes cannot be permitted.

Select Usage (details) :



City of Littleton Colorado v. Z.J. Gifts cartoons image illustration picture
City of Littleton Colorado v. Z.J. Gifts

Description:
Licensing scheme implicating first amendment interests must provide for "prompt judicial review" of any administrative denial of a license.

Select Usage (details) :



Easley v. Cromartie cartoons image illustration picture
Easley v. Cromartie

Description:
Legislative determinations, district boundary challenges, legislatively drawn boundarie, legitimate political objectives, traditional districting principles.

Select Usage (details) :



Elk Grove Unified School Dist. V. Newdow cartoons image illustration picture
Elk Grove Unified School Dist. V. Newdow

Description:
Federal courts abstain from resolving state domestic relations issues, religious education, abstention, standing.

Select Usage (details) :



Engel v. Vitale cartoons image illustration picture
Engel v. Vitale

Description:
Organized prayers in public schools are unconstitutional, the establishment clause of the first amendment, compose official prayers, religious program carried on by the government.

Select Usage (details) :



Florida Lime and Avocado Growers, Inc. v. Paul, Director, Dept. of Agriculture of California cartoons image illustration picture
Florida Lime and Avocado Growers, Inc. v. Paul, Director, Dept. of Agriculture of California

Description:
Conflict preemption requires impossible compliance with both federal and state regulations.

Select Usage (details) :



Grutter v. Bollinger cartoons image illustration picture
Grutter v. Bollinger

Description:
Educational diversity is a compelling state interest, racial classifications, narrowly tailored, strict scrutiny.

Select Usage (details) :



Hamdi v. Rumsfeld cartoons image illustration picture
Hamdi v. Rumsfeld

Description:
Individual due process rights must be balanced against national security, citizen detainee, classification as an enemy combatant, habeas corpus, war power.

Select Usage (details) :



Lawrence v. Texas cartoons image illustration picture
Lawrence v. Texas

Description:
Regulation of sexual expression violates the fundamental right of privacy, state laws criminalizing homosexual relations violate substantive due process. Sodomy.

Select Usage (details) :



Locke v. Davey cartoons image illustration picture
Locke v. Davey

Description:
Public funding of religious instruction justifies scholarship restrictions, the free exercise clause, state financed religious instruction, establishment clause.

Select Usage (details) :



Lorillard Tobacco Company v. Reilly cartoons image illustration picture
Lorillard Tobacco Company v. Reilly

Description:
Federal cigarette advertising regulations preempt conflicting state regulations, congress expressly preempts state or local action, conflicting state regulation must yield to federal law, supremacy clause.

Select Usage (details) :



Lorillard Tobacco Company v. Reilly2 cartoons image illustration picture
Lorillard Tobacco Company v. Reilly2

Description:
Restrictions on commercial speech are not subject to strict scrutiny.

Select Usage (details) :



Nevada Department of Human Resources v. Hibbs cartoons image illustration picture
Nevada Department of Human Resources v. Hibbs

Description:
The FMLA; state governments are liable for money damages for interfering or restraining state employees exercise of their rights under the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993; family leave.

Select Usage (details) :



Nguyen v. Immigration and Naturalization Service cartoons image illustration picture
Nguyen v. Immigration and Naturalization Service

Description:
Gender based classification, basic biological differences between men and women factor into an equal protection analysis, substantially related to achieving an important governmental objective.

Select Usage (details) :



Palazzolo v. Rhode Island cartoons image illustration picture
Palazzolo v. Rhode Island

Description:
Eminent domain, inverse condemnation, just compensation, ripeness, taking, environmental concerns justify limitations on development, when a regulation denies all economically beneficial or productive use of property.

Select Usage (details) :



Palmore v. Sidoti cartoons image illustration picture
Palmore v. Sidoti

Description:
Custody determinations, potential racial bias against the child, courts may not use private racial bias as a justification for official court action.

Select Usage (details) :



Pierce County Washington v. Guillen cartoons image illustration picture
Pierce County Washington v. Guillen

Description:
Congress may regulate intrastate activity that affects interstate commerce, the commerce clause, instrumentalities of interstate commerce.

Select Usage (details) :



Republican Party of Minnesota v. White cartoons image illustration picture
Republican Party of Minnesota v. White

Description:
Judicial impartiality is not a compelling enough interest to justify suppressing candidates views, government regulations that supress speech on the basis of its content must be narrowly tailored, first amendment.

Select Usage (details) :



Sabri v. United States cartoons image illustration picture
Sabri v. United States

Description:
Spending clause, appropriate federal funds for the general welfare, facial challenge, necessary and proper clause, spending power.

Select Usage (details) :



Shaw v. Murphy cartoons image illustration picture
Shaw v. Murphy

Description:
Prison officials have discretion to restrict prisoners speech, restrictions on prisoner's communication mst be "reasonably related to legitimate penological interests."

Select Usage (details) :



Silveira v. Lockyer cartoons image illustration picture
Silveira v. Lockyer

Description:
The collective rights interpretation of the second amendment is affirmed; right to maintain an effective state militia and does not establish an individual right to own or possess firearms for personal use, right to bear arms.

Select Usage (details) :



Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. United States Army Corps of Engineers cartoons image illustration picture
Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. United States Army Corps of Engineers

Description:
Administrative action conflicting with clear statutory language is not entitled to deference, administrative authority; commerce clause.

Select Usage (details) :



State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company v. Campbell cartoons image illustration picture
State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company v. Campbell

Description:
Punitive damages awards must be weighed against the compensatory damages; reprehensibility of the defendant's conduct, disparity between actual harm caused and amount of the punitive damages awarded. bad faith, supersedeas bond.

Select Usage (details) :



Tennessee v. Lane cartoons image illustration picture
Tennessee v. Lane

Description:
Title ii of the ada is a valid exercise, abrogate the state's eleventh amendment immunity, congress must have unequivocally expressed its intent; americans with disabilities act.

Select Usage (details) :



Thomas and Windy City Hemp Development Board v. Chicago Park District cartoons image illustration picture
Thomas and Windy City Hemp Development Board v. Chicago Park District

Description:
Content based restriction, prior restraint, requiring permits for all public assemblies does not infringe on the freedom of speech, content neutral regulation of access to public property, provides adequate standards.

Select Usage (details) :



United States v. American Library Association, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. American Library Association, Inc.

Description:
Libraries do not violate the first amendment by blocking pornography, censor.

Select Usage (details) :



United States v. Seeger cartoons image illustration picture
United States v. Seeger

Description:
Religion, the test of whether a belief "in a relation to a supreme being", sincere and meaningful, occupies a place in the life of its possessor parallel to that filled by the orthodox belief in god.

Select Usage (details) :



Vieth v. Jubelirer cartoons image illustration picture
Vieth v. Jubelirer

Description:
Political gerrymandering claims are not justiciable, no judicially discoverable and manageable standards for resolving the issues presented, nonjusticiable political question, justiciability.

Select Usage (details) :



Virginia v. Black cartoons image illustration picture
Virginia v. Black

Description:
Burning a cross, violates the first amendment, state statute banning cross burning with the intent to intimidate another person, free expression, prima facie evidence.

Select Usage (details) :



Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc. v. Village of Stratton cartoons image illustration picture
Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc. v. Village of Stratton

Description:
Freedom of speech includes the right to disseminate religious views at private residences; requiring a permit, door to door activities on private residential property.

Select Usage (details) :



Whitman v. American Trucking Association, Inc. cartoons image illustration picture
Whitman v. American Trucking Association, Inc.

Description:
Delegation doctrine; executive action involves a certain degree of administrative discretion; intelligible principle; legislative power; separation of powers.

Select Usage (details) :



Gratz v. Bollinger cartoons image illustration picture
Gratz v. Bollinger

Description:
A point system emphasizing minority status violates equal protection; university admissions policies; take race into account, affirmative action; reverse discrimination.

Select Usage (details) :



Rogers v. Lodge cartoons image illustration picture
Rogers v. Lodge

Description:
Discriminatory at large voting schemes are unconstitutional; multimember districts violate the fourteenth amendment; motivated by a discriminatory purpose.

Select Usage (details) :



McCleskey v. Kemp cartoons image illustration picture
McCleskey v. Kemp

Description:
forthcoming

Select Usage (details) :



Mobile v. Bolden cartoons image illustration picture
Mobile v. Bolden

Description:
At-large system violate Amendments Fourteen or Fifteen or the Voting Rights Act on if there is discriminatory intent.

Select Usage (details) :



Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corporation cartoons image illustration picture
Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corporation

Description:
Disproportionate impact; equal protection violation; proof of intentional or purposeful discrimination; disparate impact; invidious discrimination; zoning.

Select Usage (details) :



Hill v. Colorado cartoons image illustration picture
Hill v. Colorado

Description:
Confrontational speakers; unwilling recipients; a reasonable restriction on the time, place, and manner of protected speech does not violate the first amendment; content-based restriction; forum.

Select Usage (details) :



Martin v. Hunter's Lessee cartoons image illustration picture
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee

Description:
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee, the Unites States Supreme Court is the singular revising authority to control discordant state court judgments and harmonize them.

Select Usage (details) :



Desegratation Laws cartoons image illustration picture
Desegratation Laws

Description:
Cooper v. Aaron.

Select Usage (details) :



Political Question Doctrine cartoons image illustration picture
Political Question Doctrine

Description:
Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency, states can sue over global warming, case or controversy requirement. Environmental attorney. Damage to the environment.

Select Usage (details) :



Commerce Power cartoons image illustration picture
Commerce Power

Description:
Gibbons v. Ogden.

Select Usage (details) :



Commerce Clause cartoons image illustration picture
Commerce Clause

Description:
Hammer v. Dagenhart [The Child Labor Case], prohibiting the use of the facilities of interstate commerce to effect an intended evil.

Select Usage (details) :



Medical Marijuana cartoons image illustration picture
Medical Marijuana

Description:
Gonzales v. Raich, medicinal marijuana violates federal drug laws under the commerce clause powers.

Select Usage (details) :



Dormant Commerce Clause cartoons image illustration picture
Dormant Commerce Clause

Description:
C&A Carbone, Inc. v. Clarkstown, ordinance that discriminates against interstate commerce in favor of local business or investment is per se invalid, unless municipality demonstrates it has no other means to advance a legitimate local interest.

Select Usage (details) :



United Haulers Ass'n v. Oneida-Herkimer Solid Waste Management Authority cartoons image illustration picture
United Haulers Ass'n v. Oneida-Herkimer Solid Waste Management Authority

Description:
United Haulers Ass'n v. Oneida-Herkimer Solid Waste Management Authority, limits C&A Carbone, Inc v. Clarkstown holding regarding waste management activities by governments.

Select Usage (details) :



Barriers to Interstate Trade Violate the Commerce Clause cartoons image illustration picture
Barriers to Interstate Trade Violate the Commerce Clause

Description:
Baldwin v. G.A.F. Seelig, Inc., Barriers to commercial traffic between states, direct or indirect, violate the Commerce Clause when purpose and effect of such barriers is to suppress or mitigate the consequences of competition between states.

Select Usage (details) :



Hamdan v. Rumsfeld cartoons image illustration picture
Hamdan v. Rumsfeld

Description:
Accused terrorists hearings before regular tribunals, military commissions.

Select Usage (details) :



Kelo v. City of New London cartoons image illustration picture
Kelo v. City of New London

Description:
Eminent domain, just compensation, public purpose, takings of private property for use by other private citizens pursuant to a carefully considered economic development plan intended for a public purpose are valid under the Fifth Amendment.

Select Usage (details) :



Partial Birth Abortion Ban cartoons image illustration picture
Partial Birth Abortion Ban

Description:
Gonzales v. Carhart, woman's health, late term abortions.

Select Usage (details) :



Racial Balancing Strict Scrutiny cartoons image illustration picture
Racial Balancing Strict Scrutiny

Description:
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District, all racially based state action must pass strict scrutiny, even if the asserted purpose is racial balancing.

Select Usage (details) :



Federal Election Commission v. Wisconsin Right to Life cartoons image illustration picture
Federal Election Commission v. Wisconsin Right to Life

Description:
Federal Election Commission v. Wisconsin Right to Life, Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act, corporations may sponsor issue oriented ads advertisements prior to an election.

Select Usage (details) :



Ten Commandments Displays Establishment Clause cartoons image illustration picture
Ten Commandments Displays Establishment Clause

Description:
McCreary County v. ACLU of Kentucky, ten commandments displays in county courthouses violate the first amendment establishment clause.

Select Usage (details) :



Ten Commandments on State Capitol Grounds cartoons image illustration picture
Ten Commandments on State Capitol Grounds

Description:
Van Orden v. Perry, The mere fact that an object has some religious significance does not automatically mean that it runs afoul of the Establishment Clause.

Select Usage (details) :



Constitutional Interpretation cartoons image illustration picture
Constitutional Interpretation

Description:
District of Columbia v. Heller; Words and phrases in the Constitution are to be interpreted according to their normal and ordinary meanings as understood when the provision in question was adopted; second amendment.

Select Usage (details) :



Taxpayer Standing to Challenge Executive Branch Actions cartoons image illustration picture
Taxpayer Standing to Challenge Executive Branch Actions

Description:
Hein v. Freedom from Religion Foundation; Taxpayers have standing to bring Establishment Clause challenges to a federal expenditure only if that expenditure is made pursuant to an explicit congressional authorization; establishment clause.

Select Usage (details) :



Congressional Regulation of Intrastate Commerce cartoons image illustration picture
Congressional Regulation of Intrastate Commerce

Description:
Gonzales v. Raich; Medical marijuana; Prescription marijuana; THC; Congress may regulate intrastate activity if there is a rational basis for concluding that the activity may have a substantial effect on interstate commerce; necessary and proper clause.

Select Usage (details) :



A State May Be Sued for Some ADA Violations cartoons image illustration picture
A State May Be Sued for Some ADA Violations

Description:
United States v. Georgia; The enforcement power in the Fourteenth Amendment gives Congress the power to create a private right of action for violations of the Amendment; Americans with Disabilities Act; sovereign immunity.

Select Usage (details) :



Suspension Clause cartoons image illustration picture
Suspension Clause

Description:
Boumediene v. Bush; If the privilege of habeas corpus is to be denied, Congress must act in accordance with the requirements of the Suspension Clause; ultra vires.

Select Usage (details) :



Dormant Commerce Clause Laws cartoons image illustration picture
Dormant Commerce Clause Laws

Description:
United Haulers Assn., Inc. v. Oneida-Herkimer Solid Waste Management Authority; Laws that favor government operations, but that treat all private businesses equally, do not violate the Commerce Clause; dormant commerce clause.

Select Usage (details) :



Tobacco Litigation cartoons image illustration picture
Tobacco Litigation

Description:
Philip Morris U.S.A. v. Williams; An award of punitive damages based on a desire to punish the defendant for harming persons not before the court is an unconstitutional taking of property without due process.

Select Usage (details) :



Race Based Classifications are Subject to Strict Scrutiny cartoons image illustration picture
Race Based Classifications are Subject to Strict Scrutiny

Description:
Johnson v. California; All racially based classifications imposed by the government are subject to strict scrutiny, including classifications made by prison authorities.

Select Usage (details) :



Regulation of Abortion cartoons image illustration picture
Regulation of Abortion

Description:
Gonzales v. Carhart; Laws that place restrictions on abortion that express respect for the life of the unborn are valid, if laws do not unduly burden a woman's right to obtain an abortion; as-applied challenge; overbreadth doctrine; void for vagueness.

Select Usage (details) :



Right to Vote Allows ID Checks cartoons image illustration picture
Right to Vote Allows ID Checks

Description:
Crawford v. Marion County Election Board; Evenhanded restrictions on the right to vote that are related to voter qualifications and that protect the integrity and reliability of the electoral process are valid.

Select Usage (details) :



Restraining Order Violation cartoons image illustration picture
Restraining Order Violation

Description:
Town of Castle Rock v. Gonzales; An individual who has obtained a restraining order against another does not have a constitutionally protected property interest in the enforcement when there is probable cause to believe it was violated.

Select Usage (details) :



On Campus Recruiting cartoons image illustration picture
On Campus Recruiting

Description:
Rumsfeld v. Forum for Academic & Institutional Rights, Inc; Conditioning the receipt of federal funds on allowing military recruiters to have access to a college campus does not violate the First Amendment; freedom of association.

Select Usage (details) :



Campaign Contribution Limits Must Be Reasonable cartoons image illustration picture
Campaign Contribution Limits Must Be Reasonable

Description:
Randall v. Sorrell; Limits on campaign contributions may not be set so low as to magnify the advantages of incumbency and prevent a candidate from raising sufficient funds to mount an effective campaign; stare decisis.

Select Usage (details) :



Public Employees' Work Related Speech Not Protected cartoons image illustration picture
Public Employees' Work Related Speech Not Protected

Description:
Garcetti v. Ceballos; Public employees who speak as a part of their official duties are not protected from employer discipline by the First Amendment; brady material.

Select Usage (details) :



Accomodating Religious Practices Is not Establishment cartoons image illustration picture
Accomodating Religious Practices Is not Establishment

Description:
Cutter v. Wilkinson; The Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act is a permissible accommodation of religion that does not violate the Establishment Clause; free exercise clause.

Select Usage (details) :



Compelling State Interest Test cartoons image illustration picture
Compelling State Interest Test

Description:
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School Dist. The Fourteenth Amendment prevents states from according differential treatment to American children on the basis of their race; compelling state interest test; Equal Protection Clause.

Select Usage (details) :



Batson Challenge cartoons image illustration picture
Batson Challenge

Description:
Hernandez v. New York; A policy of striking all who speak a given language, without regard to the particular circumstances of the trial or the individual responses of the jurors, may be a pretext for racial discrimination; peremptory challenge.

Select Usage (details) :



Same-Sex Gay Marriage Legal In California cartoons image illustration picture
Same-Sex Gay Marriage Legal In California

Description:
In re Marriage Cases; gay rights; impermissible to treat gay individuals and same-sex couples any differently than heterosexual individuals and opposite-sex couples; compelling-state-interest-test; strict scrutiny; suspect class.

Select Usage (details) :



Freedom of Expression cartoons image illustration picture
Freedom of Expression

Description:
Virginia v. Black; A state statute banning cross burning with the intent to intimidate another person is not unconstitutional, but the establishment of criminal intent from the prohibited act itself violates the First Amendment; content-based restriction.

Select Usage (details) :



Soft Money Contribution Cannot Circumvent Campaign Contribution Limits cartoons image illustration picture
Soft Money Contribution Cannot Circumvent Campaign Contribution Limits

Description:
McConnell v. Federal Election Commission; Congress has a legitimate interest in curbing undue influence on an officeholder's judgment, as well as the appearance of such influence; quid pro quo.

Select Usage (details) :



Establishment Clause v. Free Exercise Clause cartoons image illustration picture
Establishment Clause v. Free Exercise Clause

Description:
Locke v. Davey; Although the Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause are often in tension, there is room for play in the joints between them.

Select Usage (details) :



FMLA Is Legal cartoons image illustration picture
FMLA Is Legal

Description:
Nevada Department of Natural Resources v. Hibbs;State governments are liable for money damages for interfering or restraining state employees' exercise of their rights under the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993.

Select Usage (details) :



Standing Requirements for Environmental Claims cartoons image illustration picture
Standing Requirements for Environmental Claims

Description:
Massachusetts v. EPA; For standing, a litigant must ordinarily demonstrate it has suffered concrete and particularized injury that is either actual or imminent, fairly traceable to defendant, and a likelihood that a favorable decision would redress injury

Select Usage (details) :



Enemy Combatant Rights to Habeas Corpus cartoons image illustration picture
Enemy Combatant Rights to Habeas Corpus

Description:
Boumediene v. Bush; In cases of undue delay, federal courts may entertain an enemy combatant's habeas corpus petition even before the Combatant Status Review Tribunal has had a chance to review his status.

Select Usage (details) :



Redressability And Immediacy cartoons image illustration picture
Redressability And Immediacy

Description:
Massachusetts v. EPA; Standing; A litigant Congress has accorded a procedural right to protect his concrete interests (right to challenge agency action unlawfully withheld) can assert that right without meeting standards for redressability and immediacy.

Select Usage (details) :



Corporations' Political Speech is Protected cartoons image illustration picture
Corporations' Political Speech is Protected

Description:
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission; The government may not suppress political speech on the basis of the speaker's corporate identity.

Select Usage (details) :



Right To Keep and Bear Arms cartoons image illustration picture
Right To Keep and Bear Arms

Description:
McDonald v. City of Chicago Individual self defense is the central component of the Second Amendment right to keep and bear arms and is deeply rooted in the nation's history and tradition. Heller analysis.

Select Usage (details) :



State Imposed Term Limits cartoons image illustration picture
State Imposed Term Limits

Description:
U.S. Term Limits v. Thornton. State term limits for its federal representative is contrary to the democratic maxim that the people should choose whom they please; is inconsistent with the Framers' vision of a uniform national legislature.

Select Usage (details) :



The Child Labor Case cartoons image illustration picture
The Child Labor Case

Description:
Hammer v. Dagenhart [The Child Labor Case]. The commerce power includes the power to regulate by prohibiting the use of the facilities of interstate commerce to effect an intended evil, but it is not a means to prohibit the evil itself.

Select Usage (details) :



Commerce Clause Can Reach Intrastate Labor Practices cartoons image illustration picture
Commerce Clause Can Reach Intrastate Labor Practices

Description:
NLRB v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation. Congressional power to protect interstate commerce is not limited to transactions which are an essential part of the flow of interstate commerce; can use against activities that merely burden or obstruct.

Select Usage (details) :



Tax Statutes cartoons image illustration picture
Tax Statutes

Description:
Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Co. (The Child Labor Tax Case). The presence of extensive penalizing features, indicating a primary purpose to regulate, may render a tax statute constitutionally invalid.

Select Usage (details) :



The Taxing Power cartoons image illustration picture
The Taxing Power

Description:
United States v. Butler. The Taxing Power may not be used to purchase compliance with a regulation that Congress has no power to enact.

Select Usage (details) :



The Spending Power cartoons image illustration picture
The Spending Power

Description:
South Dakota v. Dole. The constitutional limitations on Congress when exercising its spending power are less than the limits on its authority to regulate directly such as through the Commerce Power.

Select Usage (details) :



War Powers cartoons image illustration picture
War Powers

Description:
Woods v. Cloyd W. Miller Co. Congress' War Power may continue after hostilities have ended in order to remedy problems brought on by the conflict.

Select Usage (details) :



The Selective Exclusiveness Test cartoons image illustration picture
The Selective Exclusiveness Test

Description:
Cooley v. Board of Wardens. The Commerce Clause does not block state regulation of local subject matter, but blocks any state commercial regualtion dealign with a national subject matter.

Select Usage (details) :



Stream Of Interstate Commerce cartoons image illustration picture
Stream Of Interstate Commerce

Description:
Philadelphia v. New Jersey. The Commerce clause protects other States from efforts by one State to isolate itself in the stream of interstate commerce from a problem shared by all, such as garbage.

Select Usage (details) :



Least Restrictive Means Test cartoons image illustration picture
Least Restrictive Means Test

Description:
Dean Milk co. v. Madison. A health and safety ordinance that discriminates against interstate commerce will be invalid if reasonable and adequate non-discriminatory alternatives are available.

Select Usage (details) :



Market Participant Doctrine cartoons image illustration picture
Market Participant Doctrine

Description:
South Central Timber Development, Inc. v. Wuunicke. Although state owned businesses may favor resident purchasers, they may not attach conditions to the sale of products that will burden interstate commerce.

Select Usage (details) :



Least Discriminatory Means cartoons image illustration picture
Least Discriminatory Means

Description:
H.P. Hood and Sons v. DuMond. Laws limiting access to in state resources will be invalidated unless the state identifies a valid, nonprotectionist purpose for the law that cannot be achieved through less discriminatory means.

Select Usage (details) :



Privileges And Immunities Clause cartoons image illustration picture
Privileges And Immunities Clause

Description:
United Building and Construction Trades Council v. Mayor and Council of Camden. A law that survives Commerce Clause scrutiny throught the market participant exception may be subject to the Privileges and Immunities Clause of the Constitution.

Select Usage (details) :



Preemption Under The Supremacy Clause cartoons image illustration picture
Preemption Under The Supremacy Clause

Description:
Pacific Gas and Electric v. State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission; Preemption cases depend on how the court charcterizes the purposes of the state statute and the controlling federal statute. Supremacy Clause.

Select Usage (details) :



Claims Against Foreign Governments cartoons image illustration picture
Claims Against Foreign Governments

Description:
Dames and Moore V. Regan; The President has the power to suspend pending claims against foreign governments where such action is necessary to the resolution of a major foregin policy dispute and where Congress has acquiesced.

Select Usage (details) :



Line Item Veto Act cartoons image illustration picture
Line Item Veto Act

Description:
Clinton v. City of New York; Use of Line Item Veto Act to cancel spending for a budget item violates the Constitution by permitting the virtual amendment of Congressional acts by the President.; delegation doctrine.

Select Usage (details) :



Presidential Immunity cartoons image illustration picture
Presidential Immunity

Description:
Clinton v. Jones; A sitting President does not enjoy temporary immunity from all civil lawsuits for his unofficial acts.

Select Usage (details) :



Early Fifth Amendment Case cartoons image illustration picture
Early Fifth Amendment Case

Description:
Barron v. Mayor and city Council of Baltimore; Early Supreme Court cases held that the Fifth Amendment does not apply to the states. In this case, the Constitution does not compel just compensation.

Select Usage (details) :



Slaughter-House Cases cartoons image illustration picture
Slaughter-House Cases

Description:
Slaughter-House Cases; The 13th Amendment and 14th Amendment are to be read narrowly to apply only to former slaves and African-Americans. Procedural guarantees are not yet applicable to the states.

Select Usage (details) :



Lochner Era cartoons image illustration picture
Lochner Era

Description:
Lochner v. New York; A law that infringes on freedom in the marketplace and freedom of contract is unconstitutional if it does not bear a reasonable relation to a legitimate governmental purpose.

Select Usage (details) :



Price Controls cartoons image illustration picture
Price Controls

Description:
Nebbia v. New York; Court relaxes its scrutiny of the permissible purposes of economic regulation. Here, price controls on milk that are nondiscriminatory and bear a reasonable relation to a proper legislative purpose are constitutional.

Select Usage (details) :



Economic Regulation cartoons image illustration picture
Economic Regulation

Description:
Williamson v. Lee Optical; Economic regulation is constitutional if there exists some hypothetical rationale for the legislation.

Select Usage (details) :



Land Use Regulation As A Taking cartoons image illustration picture
Land Use Regulation As A Taking

Description:
Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon; A land use regulation that severely restricts land use rights can constitute a taking, which is unconstitutional unless just compensation is paid by the government.

Select Usage (details) :



The Contracts Clause cartoons image illustration picture
The Contracts Clause

Description:
Home Building And Loan Association v. Blaisdell; Supreme Court looses restraints imposed by Contract Clause in time of economic emergency so state can legislatively alter remedies for the collection of debts if reasonably related to a public purpose.

Select Usage (details) :



Race Based Admissions to State Schools cartoons image illustration picture
Race Based Admissions to State Schools

Description:
Regents of University of California v. Bakke; Admissions programs of state schools may achieve diversity in the studenty body by considering the race of its applicants among other factors. Affirmative Action; Racial Quota System.

Select Usage (details) :



Equal Protection Requires Plausible Reasons cartoons image illustration picture
Equal Protection Requires Plausible Reasons

Description:
U.S. Railroad Retirement Board v. Fritz; A federal statute does not violate equal protection if Congress could have had a ratoinal reason for treating similarly situated people differently in social or economic regulations.

Select Usage (details) :



Poll Taxes cartoons image illustration picture
Poll Taxes

Description:
Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections; Poll taxes or voter wealth as a precondition for voting are unconstitutional.

Select Usage (details) :



Voting Restrictions In School District Elections cartoons image illustration picture
Voting Restrictions In School District Elections

Description:
Kramer v. Union Free School District No. 15; Restriction of voting in school district election to parents and property owners or lessors is a violation of equal protection.

Select Usage (details) :



Gerrymandering cartoons image illustration picture
Gerrymandering

Description:
Davis v. Bandemer; Courts will review political gerrymandering controversies. For a violation of equal protection must prove both intentional discrimination against an identifiable political group and an actual discriminatory effect on that group.

Select Usage (details) :



Appeal of Termination of Parental Rights cartoons image illustration picture
Appeal of Termination of Parental Rights

Description:
M.L.B. v. S.L.J.; Equal Protection prohibits States from denying an appeal to a party whose parental rights are terminated just because she cannot afford to pay for the required trial transcript. Must provide the transcript for indigent party's appeal.

Select Usage (details) :



Civil Rights Cases cartoons image illustration picture
Civil Rights Cases

Description:
Racial discrimination by purely private acts of private individuals will not violate the thirteenth amendment or fourteenth amendment. State Action; Quasi-public employment; badges and incidents of slavery.

Select Usage (details) :



State Action cartoons image illustration picture
State Action

Description:
Jackson v. Metropolitan Edison Co.; State action may be found in a private party's action only if is a sufficient connection between the state and the challenged action, something more than just a connection between the state and private party.

Select Usage (details) :



Conspiracy to Violate Constitutional Rights cartoons image illustration picture
Conspiracy to Violate Constitutional Rights

Description:
United States v. Guest; Equal Protection can punish state officers and agents and their conspirators to prevent individuals from exercising constitutional rights. May punish private actors who conspire to violate individuals' civil rights.

Select Usage (details) :



Gender Motivated Violence cartoons image illustration picture
Gender Motivated Violence

Description:
United States v. Morrison; Contress may not remedy the bias against victims of gender-motivated violence under the Fourteenth Amendment.

Select Usage (details) :



Clear And Present Danger Test cartoons image illustration picture
Clear And Present Danger Test

Description:
Schenck v. United States; The Constitution permits the punishment of speech when the words are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger. Freedom of Speech. 1917 Espionage Act.

Select Usage (details) :



Speech Criticizing A Law Doesn't Break It cartoons image illustration picture
Speech Criticizing A Law Doesn't Break It

Description:
Masses Publishing Co. v. Patten; Speech criticizing a law may not be punished as encouraging the violation of the law unless the full meaning of the expression directly counsels or advises others to violate the last as it stands.

Select Usage (details) :



Limits of the Clear and Present Danger Test cartoons image illustration picture
Limits of the Clear and Present Danger Test

Description:
Gitlow v. New York; The clear and present danger test does not apply to state laws where the state legislature has determined pursuant to police powers that certain kinds of utterances involve a danger of substantive evil. Due Process Clause.

Select Usage (details) :



Clear And Present Danger Test Case cartoons image illustration picture
Clear And Present Danger Test Case

Description:
Whitney v. California; A state may pursuant to police powers punish utterances or joining a group inimical to the public welfare as inciting crime, disturbing the public peace, or threatening the unlawful overthrow of organized governments.

Select Usage (details) :



Clear And Present Danger Standard cartoons image illustration picture
Clear And Present Danger Standard

Description:
Dennis v. United States; When speech or publication creates a clear and present danger of attempting or accomplishing a crime, government may restrict that speech and a convict relying on the speech and press.

Select Usage (details) :



Incitement To Riot cartoons image illustration picture
Incitement To Riot

Description:
Feiner v. New York; When a public speaker passes the bounds of argument or persuasion and undertakes incitement to riot, police may stop the speaker from speaking, even if it means suppression of the speaker's ideas.

Select Usage (details) :



Purient Interests cartoons image illustration picture
Purient Interests

Description:
Roth v. United States; When an average person applying contemporary community standards feels that the dominant theme, taken as a whole, appeals to purient interests, the government can regulate the material as obscene. Pornography.

Select Usage (details) :



Obscenity cartoons image illustration picture
Obscenity

Description:
Miller v. Calfornia; Statutes barring obscenity must be drawn in enough detail to allow producers of obscenity to structure their conduct to comply with the law.

Select Usage (details) :



Obscenity Laws cartoons image illustration picture
Obscenity Laws

Description:
Paris Adult Theatre I v. Slaton; States can restrict obscenity in order to protect the public's interest in order and morality, even when the material is not available to minors or unconsenting adults.

Select Usage (details) :



The First Amendment cartoons image illustration picture
The First Amendment

Description:
American Booksellers Association v. Hudnut; The First Amendment's interest in promoting free speech outweighs the possibility that an injury may occur as a result of the speech. State may not declare one perspective right and silence opponents.

Select Usage (details) :



Indecent Words Regulation By The FCC cartoons image illustration picture
Indecent Words Regulation By The FCC

Description:
FCC v. Pacifica Foundation; Indecent words not used to express political or social opinions can, in the broadcast media, be left unprotected by the First Amendment and thereby be restricted by the government.

Select Usage (details) :



Minors Access To Pornography cartoons image illustration picture
Minors Access To Pornography

Description:
Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union; Laws regulating the access of minor to indecent and sexually-explicit content must be written in such as way that they do not infringe upon the rights of adults to access the same material.

Select Usage (details) :



Commercial Speech cartoons image illustration picture
Commercial Speech

Description:
Central Hudson Gas v. Public Service Commission; Restrictions on commercial speech must serve a substantial government interest, restrict speech in the most limited way possible, and must not restrict speech unrelated to the government interest.

Select Usage (details) :



Commercial Speech Restrictions cartoons image illustration picture
Commercial Speech Restrictions

Description:
44 Liquormart, Inc. v. Rhode Island; Government may not restrict non-misleading commercial speech when its objective can be achieved through a different, only slightly more difficult-to-implement means.

Select Usage (details) :



Permitted Free Speech Regulations cartoons image illustration picture
Permitted Free Speech Regulations

Description:
United States v. O'Brien; A governmental regulation may restrict speech if the goal is unrelated to the suppression of free speech, and the incidental restriction on alleged First Amendment freedoms is no greater than essential to legitimate interest.

Select Usage (details) :



Time Place and Manner Restrictions cartoons image illustration picture
Time Place and Manner Restrictions

Description:
Members of City Council v. Taxpayers for Vincent; An incidental restriction on expression is justified as a reasonable regulation of time, place or manner of expression so long as the restriction is narrowly-tailored to serve significant government intere

Select Usage (details) :



Symbolic Speech Expression cartoons image illustration picture
Symbolic Speech Expression

Description:
Clark v. Community for Creative Non-Violence; Symbolic expression is subject to reasonable time, place and manner restrictions if without reference to the content of the regulated speech, narrowly-tailored and leave ample alternative communication.

Select Usage (details) :



Public Employee Speech cartoons image illustration picture
Public Employee Speech

Description:
Connick v. Myers; When a public employee speaks not as a citizen but as an employee upon matters of personal interest, and that speech may cause disruption in the employee's office, the First Amendment usually does not protect.

Select Usage (details) :



Prior Restraints On The Press cartoons image illustration picture
Prior Restraints On The Press

Description:
Near v. Minnesota; One of the chief purposes of the constitutional guarantee of freedom of the press is the prevention of impositions of prior restraints on the press.

Select Usage (details) :



The Pentagon Papers cartoons image illustration picture
The Pentagon Papers

Description:
New York Times Company v. United States; Prior restraints on expression are presumptively unconstitutional, and will only be permitted when the government meets the heavy burden of showing that the restraint is justified.

Select Usage (details) :



Right of Free Association cartoons image illustration picture
Right of Free Association

Description:
NAACP v. Alabama; Curtailment by the state of the fundamental right of free association will be found unconstitutional unless it is show to be necessary to the achievement of a compelling government interest.

Select Usage (details) :



Freedom of Association cartoons image illustration picture
Freedom of Association

Description:
Shelton v. Tucker; Abridging the right to freedom of association must be pursued by the most narrow means possible.

Select Usage (details) :



Least Restrictive Means for Personal Liberties cartoons image illustration picture
Least Restrictive Means for Personal Liberties

Description:
Gibson v. Florida Legislative Investigation Committee; Impinging on the right of free association, free speech, press and petition requires convincing showing of substantial relationship between restriction and overriding and compelling state interest.

Select Usage (details) :



Litigation as Political Expression cartoons image illustration picture
Litigation as Political Expression

Description:
NAACP v. Button; When litigation is used as a form of political expression the government may limit it only if there is a compelling state interest.

Select Usage (details) :



Reporters Must Testify Before Grand Jury cartoons image illustration picture
Reporters Must Testify Before Grand Jury

Description:
Branzburg v. Hayes; The First Amendment freedom of the press does not protect news reporters from the obligation to testify before a grand jury.

Select Usage (details) :



Taxes Can Violate Free Speech cartoons image illustration picture
Taxes Can Violate Free Speech

Description:
Minneapolis Star and Tribune Co. v. Minnesota Commissioner of Revenue; Differential treatment of the press causes a presumption of a purpose to suppress expression, so subject to strict scrutiny. Here a tax was struck down.

Select Usage (details) :



Freedom of Religion cartoons image illustration picture
Freedom of Religion

Description:
Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah; Laws that restrict freedom of religious practice that are not of general application must be narrowly tailored to achieve an important and compelling governmental objective.

Select Usage (details) :



Free Exercise of Religion cartoons image illustration picture
Free Exercise of Religion

Description:
Sherbert v. Verner; Denial of government funded benefits because of religious reasons to a person who is otherwise eligible unconstitutionally infringes on their right to free exercise of religion.

Select Usage (details) :



Religious Neutral Laws cartoons image illustration picture
Religious Neutral Laws

Description:
Employment Division, Department of Human Resources v. Smith; Generally applicable, religion-neutral laws that have the effect of burdening a particular religious practice need no be justified by a compelling governemental interest.

Select Usage (details) :



Public School Accomodation of Religion cartoons image illustration picture
Public School Accomodation of Religion

Description:
Zorach v. Clauson; When a public school accommodates religious practice, without supporting or promoting it in any way, such accomodation does not violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.

Select Usage (details) :



School Prayer cartoons image illustration picture
School Prayer

Description:
Lee v. Weisman; Including religious or religion related topics in official public school functions is coercive in nature so violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.

Select Usage (details) :



Teaching Religion in Schools cartoons image illustration picture
Teaching Religion in Schools

Description:
Edwards v. Aguillard; A law that promotes a particular religious doctrine in the public schools violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.

Select Usage (details) :



Governmental Action And Establishment Clause cartoons image illustration picture
Governmental Action And Establishment Clause

Description:
Lynch v. Donnelly; Governmental action that has either the purpose or effect of endorsing or disapproving a particular religion is in violation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.

Select Usage (details) :



School Voucher And Tax Deductions cartoons image illustration picture
School Voucher And Tax Deductions

Description:
Meuller v. Allen; Provision of a neutrally applicable tax credit to parent of children attending elementary and secondary schools, whether public or private, sectarian or secular, to cover educational expenses does not violate the Establishment Clause.

Select Usage (details) :



Morse v. Frederick cartoons image illustration picture
Morse v. Frederick

Description:
Do public schools have a First Amendment right to keep students from exhibiting a message advocating drug use at a school-sponsored event supervised by faculty? School principal was liable under the Civil Rights Act for disciplining a student.

Select Usage (details) :



Gonzales v. Carhart cartoons image illustration picture
Gonzales v. Carhart

Description:
Nebraska partial birth abortion statute violated the Federal Constitution, as interpreted in Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pa. v. Casey and Roe v. Wade.

Select Usage (details) :



ACA cartoons image illustration picture
ACA

Description:
National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius; Obamacare; Affordable Care Act; Commerce Clause; health insurance; healthcare; individual mandate; minimum coverage; pre-existing conditions; premiums; Chief Justice Roberts.

Select Usage (details) :



Obamacare cartoons image illustration picture
Obamacare

Description:
National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius; Affordable Care Act; ACA; Taxation Clause; Congress authority to levy taxes; health insurance; healthcare; individual mandate; minimum coverage; pre-existing conditions; premiums.

Select Usage (details) :



Affordable Care Act cartoons image illustration picture
Affordable Care Act

Description:
National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius; Obamacare; Medicaid expansion; Spending Clause; Congress spending power; Medicaid funding; health insurance; healthcare; individual mandate; pre-existing conditions; premiums.

Select Usage (details) :



Immigration Law cartoons image illustration picture
Immigration Law

Description:
Arizona v. United States; Federal law preempts state law on immigration and alien registration laws; SB 1070; deportation; preemption; Congress Supremacy Clause; Uniform Rule of Naturalization.

Select Usage (details) :



Campaign Finance cartoons image illustration picture
Campaign Finance

Description:
Arizona Free Enterprise Club's Freedom Club PAC v. Bennett; Arizona Citizens Clean Elections Act; matching funds substantially burdens protected political speech without serving a compelling state interest and violates the First Amendment.

Select Usage (details) :



Censorship cartoons image illustration picture
Censorship

Description:
Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association; First Amendment rights for minors; strict scrutiny; violent video games; free speech; parental advisory; guardians; restriction; violence rating.

Select Usage (details) :



Church Group cartoons image illustration picture
Church Group

Description:
Christian Legal Society Chapter of the University of California, Hastings College of the Law v. Martinez; discrimination at public university; First Amendment; expressive activity; pretext.

Select Usage (details) :



DNA Evidence cartoons image illustration picture
DNA Evidence

Description:
District Attorney's Office for the Third Judicial District v. Osborne; exonerating DNA testing; no post-conviction constitutional right to access DNA evidence; due process.

Select Usage (details) :



Political Speech cartoons image illustration picture
Political Speech

Description:
Holder v. Humanitarian Law Project; Free Speech; First Amendment; prohibiting provision of material support to foreign terrorist organizations does not ban pure political speech or prohibit independent advocacy or expression.

Select Usage (details) :



Religious Monument cartoons image illustration picture
Religious Monument

Description:
Pleasant Grove City, Utah v. Summum; park is a traditional public forum, but the display of a monument is not expression to which forum analysis applies, and instead is a form of government speech not subject to Free Speech strict scrutiny.

Select Usage (details) :



Vicious Speech cartoons image illustration picture
Vicious Speech

Description:
Snyder v. Phelps; First Amendment; public concern; hate speech; homophobia; anti-gay slurs; public property protesters; picketers

Select Usage (details) :



Dog Fight cartoons image illustration picture
Dog Fight

Description:
United States v. Stevens; First Amendment; dog fighting video legal; free speech; overbreadth doctrine; animal cruelty.

Select Usage (details) :



Civil Commitment cartoons image illustration picture
Civil Commitment

Description:
United States v. Comstock; Necessary and Proper Clause; confinement; mentally ill, sexually dangerous prisoners detained beyond the date of release; hold pedophile; child molestation; sentencing; Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act.

Select Usage (details) :



Miller-El v. Dretke cartoons image illustration picture
Miller-El v. Dretke

Description:
Peremptory challenge; juror discrimination; racial discrimination; Batson v. Kentucky, Johnson v. California.

Select Usage (details) :



Fair Use Parody cartoons image illustration picture
Fair Use Parody

Description:
Winter v. DC Comics; copyright; the first amendment; appropriation of a likeness; more than merely copying the likenes; right of publicity claim; significant transformative elements; value of work does not derive primarily from celebrity's fame; fair use;

Select Usage (details) :



Goodridge v. Department of Public Health cartoons image illustration picture
Goodridge v. Department of Public Health

Description:
Same-sex partners are entitled to the benefits, liabilities, and obligations of civil marriage; gay rights; due process; equal protection; Massachusetts constitution.

Select Usage (details) :



Gay Marriage Ban cartoons image illustration picture
Gay Marriage Ban

Description:
Varnum v. Brien; gay rights; a statute restricting civil marriage to a man and a woman violates the equal protection clause of the Iowa constitution.

Select Usage (details) :